MemberJune 6, 2022 AATCC Blog

Several students at the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) Textile Development and Marketing Department (TDM) conducted research projects for the 2022 SUNY (State University of New York) Undergraduate Research Conference (SURC). These students all used AATCC Test Methods in their research projects!

Naomi Rodriguez and Stephanie Frantz presented a poster on Denim Colorfastness to Crocking and the Relation to Textile Constructions

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

“Poor colorfastness to crocking is one of the most frustrating defects experienced by consumers across all textile markets, particularly denim. Crocking refers to rubbing off of color from a fabric when subjected to abrasion, causing dye transferring from one surface to another both in dry and wet conditions. Indigo-dyed denim is typically ring dyed meaning that the dye diffuses only partially to the interior of fibers. This allows washing effects to be easily achieved as the dyes can be easily removed. This prompts the following question: Does the material with which the denim comes in contact affect how much the indigo-dye will transfer?

The overarching goal of this project is to determine whether textile construction influences the amount of crocking in addition to the fiber type. Two research methods will be utilized; quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research involves measuring the colorfastness to crocking of various fabric constructions using AATCC Test Method 8 test standard. A Crockmeter will be utilized to conduct this test. The qualitative research will include the reviewing of relevant literature.

The transfer of indigo-dye in relation to crocking will equally affect knits, wovens, and nonwovens structures.  The verdict reached will either confirm or deny the correlation between textiles constructions and crocking derived from indigo-dyed denim. This study will help manufacturers understand how indigo-dyed denim reacts with various textiles and aid in designing better products with better compatibility.”

Inspired by Naomi experiencing crock on her shoe laces, Stephanie and Naomi conducted crocking experiments (AATCC TM8) to see which fibers would have the least amount of color transfer. (Special thanks to Cone Mills for providing the denim.)


Amani Jackson, Megan Kelly, and Shevon Gardner use cosmetic products provided by the Cosmetic and Fragrance department at the Fashion Institute of Technology; they used AATCC TM135.

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

Research Project by Amani Jackson, Megan Kelley, and Shevon Gardner.

“Make-up stains on clothing causes consumer’s daily stress. These stains commonly occur at the cuffs and collar of a shirt. Make-up stains cause discoloration to the fabric if not washed out immediately, however these stains tend to stay on a consumer’s clothing for days. When it is time to wash, the stains remain one must (1) Identify the most successful washing agents for removing week-old makeup stains from the 100% cotton samples. (2) Develop a model to capture a realistic scenario of makeup rubbing off on clothing. (3) Assess the effectiveness of common stain removing agents and detergent found in stores. A mixed method of research was employed in this study: a qualitative method for identifying users’ most common methods through the AATCC Wash Method 135 and a quantitative method by using the X-Rite Spectra-Light Box for comparing results. This study determined which common washing agents are the most effective in removing a week-old make-up stains from a 100% cotton shirt. The goal is to help consumers and/or brands become aware of convenient washing agents used to remove tough make-up stains from cotton garments.”



Julia Feeney and Yasmin Bacchus study Moisture Management in Thermal Fabrics using AATCC test methods Moisture Management (AATCC TM195) and Colorfastness to laundering (AATCC TM61).

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

“To test the moisture management of three thermal fabrics of different fiber types to discern which is best for keeping wearers dry in cold, wet weather conditions.  Thermal fabrics are used for both work and sporting wear and an ineffective thermal fabric can lead to serious injury or harm to the wearer. From authors first-hand experience in working with snowsports, it seems to be no agreed-upon way to best care for thermal products. Snowsports garments lacked proper care instructions except for mentioning to keep washing of thermals to a minimum, even though people prefer to wash them after each use. Consequently, frequent washing might reduce the effectiveness against colds, resulting in injury. Additionally, at the time of purchase, the language about the garment’s level of thermal resistance is typically very vague.

Three fabrics—cotton, polyester and wool—were obtained in order to test our hypothesis. There were differences in construction, the cotton and wool were both waffles, while the polyester was a twill. Once the samples were surge-stitched, they were ready to get washed under a normal warm water setting 10 times and tumbled dried once complete. The initial observations were a slight change of hand after laundering and therefore softened the fabrics. Next, moisture management tests were conducted to both washed and unwashed samples. It is expected that wool will have the best results due to its natural thermal insulation and wicking properties. Wool depicts natural resistance to wrinkles and inner moisture allows for flame resistance. Wool also mixes well with spandex fibers which are commonly found in thermal wear, allowing a garment to have the greatest longevity and stretchability.

While cotton saw the least amount of moisture management loss after the 10 washes, wool has the actual best moisture management proving the primary hypothesis. The result indicated that when making a purchase decision, selecting wool would be a good decision. The thermal clothing sector of the fashion industry is massive but also shows a high price from consumers. As winters become more extreme from climate change, thermals will likely only become more of a growth industry. Further research is warranted for the empirical scale of thermal effectiveness measuring length and maximum temperature of efficacy. Currently on websites and packaging language about the efficacy and ideal temperature range is very vague, makes purchasing the correct level of thermal insulation difficult for consumers.”


Mary Sherman and Kitt Curry study Colorfastness to Sunlight and UV Filtered Light on Various Window Coverings using AATCC TM16 .

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

“The color of window covering textiles deteriorates over time, especially when exposed to light. Oftentimes the degradation is due to exposure to light from direct sunlight and exposure through UV filtered or unfiltered windows. In order to test the effects of light on a range of fabrics, multi fiber strips will be exposed for testing of 20 hours. The purposes are 1) Determine what fabric is best for window coverings in relation to UV exposure. 2) Evaluate the difference between UV exposure and UV filtered exposure on fabric. The AATCC 16 test standard on colorfastness to light was used to evaluate a multi fiber strip. A multi fiber strip was exposed to direct outdoor sunlight for 20 hours at a 45° angle, in 5-hour increments over 4 days. Another multi fiber strip was exposed to light though a UV filtered window for the same amount of time at the same angle. Each testing period was between the hours of 10 am and 2 pm on a given day to optimize sunlight exposure. Then, two more multi fiber strips were tested in lab equipments that simulate the same light exposure. The Xenon Fade-ometer was used to simulate non UV filtered light and the Suntest CPS+ machine was to simulate UV filtered light. To measure the effect of light, the grayscale and lightbox were used to evaluate the difference in controlled samples and tested samples.

The Suntest CPS+ machine and the Xenon Fade-Ometer produced comparable results that portrayed worse colorfastness to light than the samples tested through the UV filtered window and in direct sunlight. The natural fibers on the multi-fiber strip also had worse colorfastness to light than the synthetic fibers on the multi-fiber strip. Ultimately, the least affected multi fiber strip was the strip exposed to the UV filtered window for 20 hours. explained that the at home tests portrayed a more accurate representation of the sunlight that drapes will be exposed to. The lab equipment provided a very controlled environment that gave extreme results, that do not include the possibility of any factors affecting the colorfastness to light. Future research can be conducted to determine the colorfastness of light on fabric with differing fibers and time spans.”


Stephanie Mowry and Eylem Yazici looked at Protein Fibers Cleaning Process Sustainability .

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

To promote the consideration of animals and the wool cleaning process in conversations regarding textile sustainability, and to further connect the fashion and agriculture industries. Lanolin-heavy fibers will require the most washing apart from natural soiling due to the oily nature.

The students washed four different protein fibers and analyzed the differences in resources and processes required. Dirt and sediment proved easiest pollutant to remove;  vegetative matter easily matted into fibers, difficult to remove—worse in sheep wool; alpaca fibers were difficult to dry, high water retention; lambs wool had the loftiest structure, dried fastest with pleasant, cottony feel when cleaned; lanolin extremely difficult to remove, resulted in unpleasant, tacky texture after 2-3 washes of sheep wool. The highest content of lanolin was found in adult merino wool; merino wool held hot temperatures for markedly longer time periods than other fibers.

As expected, lanolin-heavy fibers required more washing and processing than alternatives. However, the resulting product has greater insulation properties, greater durability, and fluffier hand feel than mohair and alpaca samples. The amount of sheep’s wool used in textiles compared to alpaca and mohair, as well as the ability to sell lanolin may also balance out excessive cleaning costs—although water and chemical consumption are undoubtedly problems for the material’s sustainability.


Charley An, Grace Kim, and Elaina Paz looked at Lint Resistance in Different Fabrics, using AATCC TM135.

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

“The purpose of the study was to identify lint resistance in different fabrics after several washes, and to identify static charge in different fabrics after several washes.

The hypotheses were that:

  1.   After every wash cycle, the lint resistance will decline, and the static cling will increase in each fabric.
  2.   Fabrics made from man-made fibers will have lower lint resistance and higher static cling.

Surface Test Method of Electrical Resistivity of Fabrics: A modified version of this test was used using metal to measure the static electricity of various fiber samples. Lint Attraction Test: AATCC method 135 was simulated at Fashions Institute of Technology’s Textile Testing laboratories by using standardized cotton fibers to see how lint was attracted to the different fibers. The cotton fiber was dropped 3 inches above each fabric to measure the lint attraction.

The static cling in fabric made from man-made fibers was the highest and the fabric with natural fibers had the lowest lint resistance. The reason for this is that the man-made fibers are the most hydrophobic. Hydrophobic fibers do not absorb water and are more conductive to build up static charge. While natural fibers, which are made of hydrophilic fibers, contain less static cling as a result of their ability to absorb water.”


Alper Katranci and Zeynap Akbayrak presented  A Comparative Study on Performance of Dyed Fabrics Using Conventional and Waterless Dyeing Techniques.

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

The textile dyeing process, a water-intensive process, causes discharging of a significant amount of effluents. Around 62 billion lbs of textiles are dyed annually and one pound of textile material uses on average 50-70 liters of water to process. In order to reduce water consumption, water-less or carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dyeing has already been developed. However, the color performance of the fabrics dyed using conventional and waterless dyeing techniques may not be the same and this study explored that. The purpose of this study was to compare fabric color performances that were dyed using both conventional and waterless dyed techniques.

Two polyester knitted fabrics with similar construction were dyed using the conventional technique (using infrared dyer) and waterless technique using CO2 . These dyed fabrics were evaluated for colorfastness to crocking, colorfastness to light, and colorfastness to laundering for staining using AATCC TM8, AATCC TM16, and AATCC TM61, respectively. It is found that conventional dyed samples represented better performance for the colorfastness to perspiration, whereas waterless dyed samples represented better performance for both colorfastness to laundering and colorfastness to light.

It has been long established that dyeing is one of the most energy and resource-intensive processes of textile development. This study explored if the color performance would be different between the fabrics being dyed by conventional polyester dyeing and waterless dyeing technique. It helped the fabric designers and dyers to make informed decisions regarding which method should be used and considered the cost and environmental analysis. After gathering results from both samples, it was revealed that no huge differences were existed between those samples based on the colorfastness tests.


Foram Patel and Naomi Sing-Bento looked at several different detergent types to see what work best in a standard home laundry, AATCC TM135. Their presentation was titled, Determining the Best Softener for Different types of Fabrics: An Investigative Study for Optimal Laundering Techniques and Care Labels. 

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.

Fabric softeners contain lubricating ingredients that coat and soften the fibers in clothing items and come in the forms of liquid, powder, and dryer balls/sheets. Softeners are commonly used to help fight wrinkles, reduce static, and add a soft touch and scent to the fabric. With the many types of fabrics in the market, it is essential to have proper care labels that clearly outline the correct softener techniques that work best for that specific type of fiber. The quantitative method was used for this study—assessing the best levels of softness/hand the softeners have on the cotton, polyester, and wool knit fabrics. Testing for fabric hand value using AATCC EP5, testing for absorbance using AATCC 79-1992. The samples were tested after three washes using a top load laundry machine.

Objectives included:

  • Identifying the optimal amount of different types of softeners required to wash cotton, polyester and wool knit fabrics.
  • Determining if liquid softener, dryer sheets, or dryer balls works best with each selected fabric based on softness and absorbency.
  • Assessing the softness level by using the AATCC hand feel test.
  • Testing for absorbance using the AATCC TM61-2013e2.

Softeners are types of lubricants that may block pores when applied to the fabric surface. That is why optimum concentration is necessary for softeners; otherwise, they reduce the absorbency of fabrics. According to the absorbency test, it was found that the absorbency for wool, cotton and polyester considerably decreased with the use of different types of softeners. Dryer sheet fabric softeners are less effective in softening fabrics than liquid softeners because of erratic deposition of softener and less lubrication on the fabric. Wool balls showed negligible to no difference when it comes to softening the fabric.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of household fabric softeners on the absorbency and hand feel of cotton, wool and polyester. Based on our experiment and the analyzed data ,the results showed that all, the liquid softener, the dryer sheet and the dryer balls significantly decreased the absorbency of the tested fabrics. These results are beneficial to consumers who are concerned about the absorbency of their clothes, such as T-shirts and underwear especially in hot weather. According to the results, liquid softener works best with cotton fabric in improving the smoothness and hand of the fabric. Dryer sheets worked best with polyester in reducing the static-cling, however, the dryer balls showed reverse effect on wool, reducing its moisture management. From the data, no one type of softener evaluated could be labeled as best or worst in terms of overall performance; however, the dryer balls appeared least effective in most tests.


Daelyn Young and Kushbu Jivan examined the Flammability and Strength of Various Welding Workwear Materials.

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT

The typical welding gear has historically been made from split cowhide. However, the impact of the tanning process that allows split cowhide to be so durable is detrimental to environmental health. There are multiple market alternatives that are more sustainable and accessible to the general public that also meet OSHA regulations.

● Welding gear must be heat and spark resistant, comfortable, allow for dexterity, durable, and breathable.
● Typical Welding temperatures are between 6500℉ and 10,000℉
● The flammability was tested using a modified standard based off of ASTM Test Method D-1230. This was tested by holding the specimen 2 inches above a Bunsen burner and observing the amount of time the specimen took to catch and if it self extinguished.
● The dimensional stability was tested using the Sussman Curing Oven. The dimensional stability and hand after exposure to excess heat was tested using the Sussman Curing Oven and observing after intervals of 1 hour, 5 hours, and 10 hours.

Results: Kevlar was the strongest when it came to tensile strength, as it would have been with tearing strength if tested. The cowhide and Kevlar performed similarly when burned: they both self extinguished. However, the cowhide shrunk 17% when exposed to high temperatures. The denim was notably strong, but did ignite when forced.

Conclusions: The most protective and sustainable fiber for welding workwear is Kevlar. Kevlar was the stronger fabric and performed equally well with cowhide. In addition to this, the Kevlar fabric did not shrink when exposed to high temperatures for a prolonged period. It is also more lightweight than the cowhide. Kevlar is an aramid fiber which also makes it naturally cut resistant. It is also a 100% recyclable material.

Kevlar, however, is not an affordable material. A way to further this study would be to test Kevlar blends. Some fibers that Kevlar can be blended with are organic cotton and recycled nylon. This would allow for the properties of the blended fibers to be combined: the strength and protection of Kevlar and the breathability, lightweight, and wicking capabilities of cotton and nylon. It would also allow for products made of these blends to be accessible.


Roberta Mastrandrea and Camille Segre-Lawrence made A Comparative Study On Fabric Softeners.

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT

The goal of this research was to compare the efficiency of four different types of fabric softeners: wool dryer balls, silicon dryer balls, fabric softener sheets, and liquid fabric
softener. The performance of a liquid fabric softener, a fabric sheet softener, wool dryer balls, and silicon dryer balls on three different fabric types—wool, polyester and cotton—were
compared. All three types of fabric were washed separately using the four different methods, meaning 12 washes in total. The data was compared by hand and pilling tests using ASTM D3512.

Results and Conclusion: Similar results were found across all three fabrics during the hand test. Each individual softener method performed similarly despite the type of fabric it was being tested against. Liquid softener had the best pilling results, and cotton experienced pilling no matter what fabric softener was used. In conclusion, the liquid fabric softener had stronger results than the other three methods due to the liquid softener being a wet/chemical finish rather than a dry mechanical finish. On the other hand, the silicone dryer balls performed poorly, contrary to what was expected. This research can help guide professional laundry and dry-cleaning businesses to make better decisions when laundering their customers’ garments. Furthermore, due to the liquid softener having the best results, while also being the least sustainable, researchers should do further investigation into how liquid fabric softeners could be made sustainable.


Kristianne CostelloChristina Kim, and Alexandra Nikolopoulos studied Natural versus Synthetic Dyes: A Comparative Study of Colorfastness on Cotton Fabrics

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT

Dyeing is one of the most energy and resource intensive processes of textile development. An alternative and more sustainable option could be utilizing natural dyes such as indigo, turmeric, and cochineal and other natural dyestuffs, which results in less toxic effluent  than the prevailing traditional dyeing.

Objectives: 1) How do different dyeing methods affect cotton fabric properties, and 2) Comparing colorfastness properties of cotton fabrics being dyed with natural, direct, and reactive dyes. Method: Woven cotton fabrics with same construction and yarn and knit cotton fabrics with same construction and yarn were dyed with natural, direct, and reactive dyes. These dyed fabrics were evaluated for colorfastness to crocking, colorfastness to light, and colorfastness to laundering for staining using AATCC 8, AATCC 16, and AATCC 61 test methods respectively.

Results and Conclusions: This study validated the idea that natural dyes are not efficient or applicable for larger consumption because the average consumer will not be able to adhere to the care label to maintain colorfastness of their garments. Also, this study stimulated dyers to explore options or tweaking mordants to improve the color performance of cotton fabrics that are dyed by natural dyes. These results revealed that direct dyes perform better in Colorfastness to light tests while reactive dyes are more colorfast to laundering. All dyes passed the dry crocking tests.


Claire and Melanie looked at the stretch and recover of recycled spandex, Creora Regen made by Hyosung Industries, in a poster titled Elastomeric Fibers Performances in Bathing Suits

Advisors: Professor Sean Cormier and Dr. Md Imranul Islam of FIT.


The swimwear market is projected to register a CAGR of 6.38% during the forecast period (2022-2027). According to Outdoor Participation report in the United States In 2018, approximately 27.58 million people opted for swimming as their fitness routine. According to the World Waterpark Association, there are presently about 1,300 water parks in North America and these water parks are anticipated to attract more 375 million. The worldwide market for spandex fiber is valued at 5,988.6 million USD in 2020 is expected to reach 9,414 million USD by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of 6.6% during 2021-2026. The market is divided into polyester, nylon, and spandex. Polyester accounted for the largest share of 33.4% in 2018.

A swimsuit’s typical lifespan without chlorine abrasion is one year. External conditions will affect wear and tear. The most obvious external factor is chlorine and saltwater. Detergent, fabric softener, or hot environments (washer and dryer) can affect a swimsuits lifespan. Different surfaces like concrete, dirt, wood, etc., can pill the fabric and lessen the effectiveness. Frequent swimmers know that chlorine will ruin your swimsuit. Over time, the fabric will shred, the color will fade, and the elastic will break down. This will result in high stretch with little recovery. It is expected that a swimsuit will slowly break down if it is not made with strong or chlorine resistant materials. Lycra is  known for being stronger than spandex, and lasting ten times longer. While a swimsuit typically lasts three months to a year, the consumer ultimately decides how long it will last  purely based off how well it is cared for.

The specific purposes of this study are to investigate how chlorine affects spandex, recycled spandex, or Lycra and which fiber withstands chlorine best. The hypothesis is that elastomeric fiber with higher polyurethane content will depict better resilience and stretchability to be used in bathing suits. Three bathing suit materials with spandex, recycled spandex, and Lycra were evaluated for stretch and recovery, and tensile strength to chlorine water via following ASTM D2594 and ASTM D5034 test standards respectively.

Results and Conclusions: The gathered data revealed that fabric with spandex has the highest bursting strength and stretch and recovery to chlorine water and regular water than both recycled spandex and Lycra. Since it was hard to maintain similar areal density, thickness, stitch density for all fabrics, further comprehensive tests are warranted to reach a concrete conclusion.  This study determined the best polyurethane-based fiber to impart functional properties in bathing suits in terms of stretch, shape retention, breakage in fibers, etc. Bathing suits manufacturers and consumers get benefits out of this study and take informed decisions about their product developments and choices. This study can be furthered by testing samples with saltwater.




Report by Sean Cormier, FIT






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