Posters will be available for viewing March 10 from 6:00 – 8:00 pm and all day on March11. Presenters will be in attendance on March 11 from 5:30 – 6:30 pm to discuss their research and address questions.
3D Technology for Apparel Design and Visualization: How Far Are We?—Shahida Afrin (presenter), and Cynthia Istook, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University
The progress in 3D technology has a greater impact on the perception of apparel design and continue to be a nest for innovation. Though the technology yet to be developed for the apparel and fashion industry, it is most likely to have an impact on the creative and garment development process to merchandising and e-commerce. In this article I will be presenting an overview of the available 3D technologies in terms of software and hardware along with 3D body scanning. Strength and weakness of each 3D technology is also discussed. Finally, a special interest is given to the integration of newly developed 3D technology with the currently existing 2D technology in the industry.
Development of a Skin-Fabric Friction Model with an Objective to Prevent Skin Injuries—Ruksana Baby (presenter), Kavita Mathur, and Emiel DenHartog, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University
Enhanced friction from textiles expedites development of friction-related skin injuries such as pressure ulcers. [1-9] More than 2.5 million individuals develop pressure ulcers annually that costs the US healthcare systems $9.1-$11.6 billion/year due to increased healthcare utilization.  This research aims to minimize such friction injuries by investigating the physical mechanisms of friction in woven fabrics, skin and their interaction in combination with effects of mechanical parameters (pressure, shear, frequency, speed and time) and micro-climate. The ultimate goal is to develop an empirical skin-fabric friction model utilizing all the underlying factors to eliminate the gap between theoretical and empirical observations, and provide realistic prediction for designing tailored textiles for specific applications and end-use.
Measurement of Exothermic Properties of Textiles under Humidity Change at Different Temperatures—Emiel DenHartog (presenter) and Fangfang Weng, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University
Fabric Regain properties affect water vapor uptake, which releases heat (exothermic). In this study the exothermic properties of fabrics were evaluated at different temperature. Knitted fabrics made from cotton, wool, polyester and viscose were evaluated at two thicknesses and with hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment. Measurements were conducted at 0°C, 10°C and 20°C, with a controlled relative humidity change from 45% to 85%. Increasing relative humidity resulted, as expected, in differences in moisture regain and heat release for these fiber types, but the dynamics of the responses were different at different temperatures. These results suggest that at lower temperatures regain effects may affect human heat loss and, thus, thermal sensations for prolonged periods and lead to a re-evaluation of hygroscopic fabrics in cold environments.
Molecular Interactions in Electrospinning for Increased Functionality—Elena Ewaldz (presenter), Joshua Randrup, and Blair Brettmann, Georgia Institute of Technology
A significant research focus in nano- to micron scale fibers is to expand the functionality of electrospun ultrafine fibers for more commercial applications. Many of these applications require a wider range of materials to be used including functional materials, which are typically unable to be electrospun. Understanding how particles behave with a polymer through electrospinning allows for control over the molecular interactions between additives and polymers when designing a product. The overall aim of this research is to expand the functionality of ultrafine fibers and broaden potential applications, by studying molecular interactions between various solution components including polymers, molecules, particles, and solvents used for electrospinning. This will allow for creation of more functional ultrafine fibers.
Assessing the Durability of Firefighter Protective Hoods Following Simulated On-The-Job Exposures—Arash Kasebi (presenter), R. Bryan Ormond, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University
Although firefighter protective hoods, just like turnout ensembles, are required to be retired after 10 years of service per NFPA 1851, there are still significant gaps in research pertaining to the durability of protective hoods and the effect of on-the-job stressors like donning and doffing, laundering, ultra-violet radiation, and intermittent heat exposures. Understanding the effects that these stressors have on protective hood materials over time can give fire service members as well as manufacturers valuable insight on the lifespan of this product. In this study, the durability and performance of traditional knit hoods as well as newly developed particulate-blocking hoods were compared following exposures to these simulated on-the-job stressors.
Modeling for Predicting the Protective Performance of Fabrics Used in Firefighters’ Clothing—Nur-Us-Shafa Mazumder (presenter) and Sumit Mandal, Oklahoma State University
In 2017, US National Fire Protection Association reported 58,835 injuries to the on-duty firefighters. Proper performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing can minimize the risk of injuries of the firefighters. Protective performance of the clothing is extensively affected by the size of microclimate-air-gap between the fabric and skin, and the amount of moisture accumulated inside the fabric. Therefore, this study focuses on developing the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to predict the protective performance of clothing as this model gives accurate prediction compared to regular statistical models. For this ANN modeling, different variables have been considered including fabric properties, moisture, and air-gaps. It has been found that this model can predict protective performance more precisely than the previous models.
Comparison of the Accuracy of 3D Body Scanner Measurements to Hand Measurements on the Fit of Ladies’ Pants—Mushfika Tasnim Mica (presenter), Erin Irick, and Jennifer Harmon, Oklahoma State University
Although the 3D body scanner measurement system is non‐contact and instant, the accuracy and reliability still need to be tested. On the other hand, hand measurement is dependent on the measurers’ skill. The purpose of this study was to identify which measurement system provided more accurate measurements for the human body. Therefore, five participants were recruited based on their body shape, and two pairs of pants (hand-measured and scanner-measured) were constructed for each participant. The fit of the pants was assessed by two professionals with a 5-point Likert Scale, and the participants were interviewed with open-ended questions on the assessment of both fit and comfort as well. Although hand-measured pants gained more points on “fit” by the professionals, participants preferred the scanner-measured ones for “comfort.”
Sustainable Dyeing of Cotton with Excellent Fastness Properties—Shahriar Salim (presenter), and Ahmed EI-Shafei, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University
Dyeing cotton to deep shades using reactive dyes is a major source of environmental pollution, due to the disposal of high amounts of electrolytes and alkali as effluent from dye houses. To make the process more sustainable, cotton was cationized by grafting a cationic monomer, CHPTAC (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride) and graft polymerizing another proprietary chemistry into cotton. Moreover, cationized cotton was dyed using pad-steam-dry dyeing to ensure minimum water usage and no effluent. Cationization of cotton coupled with pad-steam-dry dyeing eliminate the need of electrolyte and alkali in the dye bath. Additionally, ionic bonding between the dye and the cationized cotton led to excellent fastness properties. Dyed proprietary polymer grafted cotton fabrics showed higher color yield and better colorfastness properties than dyed CHPTAC grafted cotton fabrics.
The Release of Microfibers During Textile Laundering of Cotton Fabrics and their Behavior in Aquatic Environments: Effect of Fabric Finishes—Marielis Zambrano (presenter), Richard Venditti, and Joel Pawlak, Forest Biomaterials Department, North Carolina State University; Jay Cheng, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University; Jesse Daystar and Mary Ankeny, Cotton Incorporated; and Carlos Goller, Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University
The presence of the typical finishes alters the surface chemistry of the cotton fibers, potentially affecting their biodegradability and persistence in the environment. Cotton knitted fabrics with different finishes such as durable press, silicone softener, C6 based fluorinated (Non-PFOA) water repellent, and a dye (blue 19) will be evaluated relative to cotton fabrics without treatments. For these experiments, aquatic aerobic and anaerobic environments will be simulated within an RSA PF-8000 respirometer using aerobic activated sludge and anaerobic sludge from local wastewater treatment plants. The preliminary results obtained in aerobic conditions indicate that the finishes applied to cotton fabrics in the textile processing delayed the aquatic biodegradation of the cotton fibers, especially the initial degradation rate. Despite the differences in rate, all the cotton samples reached more than 60% biodegradation in 102 days; in fact, the cotton fibers with silicone softener degraded by 90%.