Chemical Applications Abstracts
The demand for sustainably produced textiles continues to grow. Consumers and brands both want to know that the products they are buying or selling were made with minimal environmental impact. Cotton Incorporated and HanesBrands Incorporated have collaborated on several projects to allow cotton to be dyed with without salt and limited color discharge in effluent. These approaches include an economical pretreatment that allows cotton be dyed with disperse dyes in various methods, as well as the development and application of new cationization chemistry with no odor and improved application efficiency allowing the dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes with minimal color discharge. An overview of the development and current application of these process will be discussed.
Mechanism of and solutions to reactive tendering are proposed. Reactive tendering leads to poor mechanical and wet-crocking properties of heavy-shade-reactive-dyed cellulosics. Though reactive tendering was first reported in the1980’s, its mechanism and solutions were not well investigated. Solutions to the problems would improve not only the understanding of cellulose chemistry but the quality of dyed fabrics. Kinetically, negative charges on reactive dyes stabilize intermediate, oxocarbenium ions, through electrostatic interaction and lower the activation energy of hydrolysis, resulting in increased hydrolysis of cellulose or tendering. Tendering could be reduced or eliminated through slight modification of the constitutions of reactive dyes. Examples are using reactive groups with less electron density, reducing the number of water-soluble groups, and increasing the distance between water-soluble groups and glycosidic bonds.
They are many difficulties that the Textile Industry is currently facing with the change of going from fluorinated chemistry to a fluorine free chemistry. There is also still a stigma regarding the performance of PFC-Free Durable Water Repellent due to the first generation of products was not reaching the water repellency level of C6 and had no oil repellency. The latter is still true, but the water repellency performance is now on par with C6 as long as the textile material is adequately prepared to receive the PFC-Free DWR finishing.
In that regard NICCA has spent a lot of efforts developing additional chemistries that are fabric specific to the overall surface of the fabric before receiving its PFC-Free DWR.
This presentation will explain what these chemistries are and how they function to give the best repellency and stain release.
Globalisation of the industry and the move eastward has left a shortfall in suitably qualified people in the coloration industry and a lack of facilities that can teach this content either on a full-time basis or part-time/day release basis. The SDC has recognised this and worked closely with the UK industry to develop a range of educational courses focused initially on our traditional market, the textile dyer. This has been successfully rolled out and will provide a global central point of education in this field. This paper will outline the benefits for all education being centralised and delivered through a virtual medium and compared to a traditional learning experience.
This presentation will highlight the results of a study conducted by Cotton Incorporated in collaboration with Novozymes to determine if cellulase treatments can impart combed ring spun-like characteristics to carded ring spun and carded open end cotton yarns. Both acid cellulase and neutral cellulase were applied to both jersey knit and interlock knit fabrics made with yarn from all three spinning systems. Along with the study to determine if biopolishing can “upgrade” cotton yarn, a study was conducted to compare the effect of an acid cellulase treatment performed in a separate bath prior to dyeing with a neutral cellulase treatment performed in the dyebath.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) are added to textiles to provide a cool-to-the-touch feel. PCMs have been used for decades and are now a significant portion of the mattress ticking market. For textiles, microencapsulated paraffins are most frequently used as the active material. While this market has grown significantly over the past ten years, there have been very few methods developed to quantitatively assess the amount of PCM applied. As a result, performing side-by-side comparison of technologies has been extremely difficult for manufacturers and consumers alike. There are several equipment manufacturers that offer tests to assess cooling; however, there hasn’t been a common industry standard. This talk will evaluate different methods for analyzing PCMs on textiles and assess their utility for product design and quality control.
The moisture vapor transmission property of three fabrics was investigated using the simple dish method and the sweating hot plate method. In the simple dish test, three levels of air space thickness and two types of fabric placement were selected for the experiment. Based on the results of the simple dish method, a strong linear relationship between the air space thickness and the quotient of moisture vapor transmission rate divided by the water vapor pressure difference was found through formula derivations. And based on the results of simple dish test and sweating hot plate test, the total resistance to evaporative heat transfer for a fabric system and surface air layer calculated from the two tests are different, but there is no significant difference between them.
Moisture management is important for human comfort of clothing, especially while perspiring. Ideally, the fabric chosen for the garment will enable moisture to migrate away from the skin surface, facilitating the liquid to be evaporated into the surrounding environment. This research explored the heat loss associated with combined wicking and exposure of wetting of fabrics. A dynamic guarded sweating hot plate was used to measure heat loss as water was slowly introduced over a 60-minute testing period. The results on a knit polyester fabric, a knit cotton fabric, and a woven cotton fabric indicated that the liquid water absorption and transport processes significantly influence loss properties during this transition period and these differences. This will enable testing of fabrics for comfort in changing conditions.
U.S. sales of athletics, exercise, sport and casual wears reached $33.7 billion in 2014, representing 16% of the overall U.S. apparel market that year. Most activewears are made of synthetic fibers known for tendency to generate body odors caused by skin flora metabolism of sweat. Textile industry has been using antimicrobial to control odor for years and there established standard test methods for the performance of an antimicrobial treatment in textiles such as AATCC 100 and JIS L1902. However, whether the microorganism reduction given by the standard test methods correlates to a reduction in body odor in textiles is still questionable. Microban will present data from studies aimed at correlating human perception of sweat odor on fabrics with antimicrobial effect.
Microbiological testing involves live organisms. Procedural consistency in applying a microbiological test standard is essential if a laboratory is to obtain test results that adequately represent the performance of an antimicrobial treated substrate. The breadth of language within most standard microbiological test methods provides considerable procedural latitude. As a result of this latitude the procedures used may vary and may generate significantly different test results for the exact same substrate, with the exact same concentration of antimicrobial ingredient and tested under the exact same standard test method. By consistently using uniform procedures microbiological laboratories can generate more precise and comparable test results. This paper will discuss the latest standard antimicrobial test methods and the IAC Verification Program that electronically documents the consistent use of uniform procedures within microbiological testing laboratories.