Antibacterial & Odor Control: Marketing & Technology Advancements Conference
October 16-17, 2019
Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Federal Regulation of Treated Articles —John Hebert, EPA
“The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is the Federal statute that governs the registration, distribution, sale, and use of pesticides in the United States. FIFRA defines a pesticide as “any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest.” A treated article is an article or substance treated with, or containing, a pesticide to protect the treated article or substance itself. Regulations in 40 CFR 152.25(a), also known as the Treated Articles Exemption, exempts certain treated articles and substances from regulation under FIFRA if specific conditions are met. These conditions include that the incorporated pesticide is registered for use in or on the article and the sole purpose of the treatment is to protect the article or substance itself.”
Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing of Solid Wound Dressings Combined with Drugs— Brandon Kitchel, FDA
Wound dressings containing antimicrobial agents have been on the U.S. market prior to the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 and are regulated through the 510(k) pathway to demonstrate that indications for use and technological characteristics are “substantially equivalent” to a legally marketed predicate device. Solid wound dressings are comprised of synthetic or naturally derived materials, come in various forms (e.g., woven or non-woven fabric pads, foam, or hydrogel with backing scaffold or matrix), and may be multilayered. A wide range of antimicrobial agents have been added to wound dressings to reduce microbial growth within the dressing, and include agents such as metals (e.g., silver, bismuth), biguanides (e.g., PHMB, chlorhexidine), and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (e.g., benzalkonium chloride). To ensure antimicrobial effectiveness by effectively reduce microbial growth within these wound dressings, the FDA frequently recommends the use of AATCC Test Method 100 with specific modifications, including an expanded list of clinically relevant test organisms, and pre-conditioning the dressing material with simulated wound fluid to better account for the worst-case scenario clinical use of the device. This talk will provide additional recommendations and considerations regarding the utility of AATCC 100 for antimicrobial effectiveness testing of premarket wound dressings containing antimicrobial agents.
Biologically Derived Antimicrobials for Textile Applications —Avni Argun, Giner Inc.
Traditional antimicrobial agents include mass-produced chemicals which possess broad-spectrum activity that affect all skin bacteria non-specifically. These treatments lead to potential issues such as domination of pathogenic and multi-drug resistant bacteria during reestablishment of the healthy skin microbiome. Capable of targeting infectious bacterial species while leaving the skin commensals intact, Our technology involves incorporation of biologically derived antimicrobial agents within a biocompatible polymer matrix using a water-based multilayer assembly process. This concept offers an unprecedented opportunity at scales relevant for continuous roll-to-roll modification of fabrics. Ultimately, Giner aims at developing this coating for a diverse set of applications ranging from prevention of health care-associated infections (HAIs) to treatment of endemic pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals.
Combating Candida auris: A Global Fungal Threat to Vulnerable Patients —Jillian Vocke, Medline Industries
Candida auris (C. auris) is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a new, global Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI). Currently, there is little reliable scientific data regarding the characteristics that make this microorganism a unique threat and how best to control its spread. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believes we are still in the window of opportunity to control the spread and impact of C. auris, however action must be taken immediately. Our Infection Prevention team is leading efforts to generate the fundamental data necessary for the scientific and clinical communities to develop strategies to combat this microbe. Some research questions being explored include the survivability of C. auris on various clinical environments (textiles, stainless steel, etc), growth kinetics in free-living and biofilm forms, and modeling of how C. auris spreads from a contaminated source throughout a hospital room and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of what has been discovered so far, by both our research team and in the published literature, with the ultimate goal of educating and assisting attendees in their own efforts to combat C. auris and protect their vulnerable patient populations.
Role of Antimicrobial Textile in Fight Against Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI)—Shazia Siddiqui, NAMSA
HAI infections are becoming a serious threat in Healthcare system. According to Center for Disease Control (CDC), at least 23,000 people die each year after contracting these super bugs like MRSA, VRE and C.difficle to name few. Antimicrobial textile in healthcare environment (Linen, towel, gowns, uniforms, drapes and wound dressing) plays a major role in limiting the spread of these superbugs.
“Antimicrobial” is a general term to indicate the product is capable of killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, any of which may be pathogenic under specific conditions. Natural antimicrobial substances like spices, herbs and bamboo as well as manmade or other naturally occurring antimicrobial substances (e.g., silver, copper, etc.) have long been used to protect textiles and other household items. These substances have also been employed in medical settings, particularly hospitals, to reduce the occurrence of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs).
In the United States, antimicrobial textiles are usually sold with claims consistent with the Treated Articles Exemption from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In general, antimicrobial agents used on inanimate surfaces are subject to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), whereas antimicrobial substances used in or on living animals or humans are subject to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Because of the obvious potential adverse impact on patients, any hospital textile or surface or any medical device that employs the use of an antimicrobial substance faces unique regulatory expectations and requirements.
There are a number of test procedures that may be applied to meet these various requirements and these procedures vary in terms of the static or dynamic nature of the microbial challenge and in terms of quantitative or qualitative analysis. The FDA requirements include, but are not limited to, the use of clinically relevant microbial challenges, the use of a quantitative analysis and the establishment of at least a 4-log population reduction of the microbes included in the product label claim, whereas the requirements for antimicrobial products not regulated by the FDA are generally broader and less specific. For very specific applications and claims (e.g., would dressings), the application, length of claimed efficacy and efficacy against organisms unique to the use environment, also take on very important roles, particularly given the current regulatory climate and the current industry trends for HAIs. Understanding the regulatory environment, the requirements of that environment, and the intended efficacy/ application for a product with antimicrobial properties and claims is essential to success.
Moving Cotton Textiles into the 21st Century through Technology —Jasmine Cox, Gaston College
Healthcare-associated infections occur in about 10 % of hospital patients in Intensive Care Units (medical and surgical). Resistant organisms make up to 75% of the bacteria associated with these infections. Patients who remain in medical ICU or surgical ICU longer than 2 days are more susceptible to healthcare-associated infections. Medical Textiles such as bedding, linens, curtains, etc. can house the strains of resistant organisms. The use of advanced medical textiles in hospital settings can drastically improve the health environment in hospital ICU units and ultimately save lives. Doctors, nurses and caregivers can now benefit from treated medical textiles to prevent exposure to bacteria. Antimicrobial materials range from those that reduce some bacteria for a limited time to the absolute vale of self-disinfecting materials, which represent their ability to eliminate bacteria and assure that they will not reappear. With Argaman Technologies Ltd’s innovative solutions, it is now possible to apply safe environmentally sustainable self-disinfecting materials to textiles that have no negative effect on the fabrics while giving the benefit of use more/wash less no-odor and even healing benefits.
Reducing Water Use and the Carbon Footprint of Textile Maintenance Through Odor Control —Jim Krueger, International Antimicrobial Council
This talk will focus on how the universal adoption of odor control products by textile manufacturers has the potential to reduce the annual laundering generated CO2 emissions in the United States from 142 MMT to 20 MMT. Additionally, we’ll discuss how the annual water use rate of laundering textiles could be reduced from 847 billion gallons per year to 119 billion gallons per year. With residential laundering contributing 21% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in the United States we’ll look at the important role odor control can have to reduce this large producer of carbon emissions.
A Green Wardrobe: Communicating A Sustainability Message at Retail —Karen Howland, Blink
The U.S. apparel industry has, over the years, been one of the most targeted industries by consumer organizations and is, thus, fraught with controversy largely over environmental and social issues. Most apparel brands and retailers therefore have a varying degree of focus on “sustainability initiatives”; in other words, some do a better job than others when it comes to telling their sustainable story. Very little attention has been paid, however, to whether or not these sustainability initiatives are important to the apparel consumer and whether or not these initiatives matter in her/his decision making process. We will explore whether or not consumers perceive sustainability initiatives undertaken by apparel companies as “valuable” and, if so, look at how odor controlling apparel and home textiles companies might effectively communicate their sustainability story to the consumer.
Sustainability Beyond Manufacturing & Logistics – Rick Basinger, 1888 Mills LLC
This presentation will discuss how the 1888 Mills goal of Weaving a Better World® includes a sustainability initiative that doesn’t stop at manufacturing and logistics. At 1888 we feel it’s important to design products that sustain our planet by relieving some of the existing stresses to the environment (Seaqual Towels). We also focus on designing products that promote sustainability in their daily use by the consumer (Freshee products). When 75 percent of consumers surveyed say environmental change and sustainability “require change in our (consumer) behaviors,” the textile industry needs to respond. This talk will examine how textile manufacturers and retailers can provide consumers with affordable and sustainable product alternatives that address consumer sustainability concerns.
Global Antimicrobial and Anti-Odor Performance Testing Standards—Robert Monticello, International Antimicrobial Council
Antimicrobial and anti-odor testing standards continue to be developed globally in order to more closely simulate the environments in which these treated articles will be exposed. Textiles have been treated with biocidal agents to control the growth of bacteria on fabric for decades and we have always had a need to develop test methods that can detect this activity and similarly use this data to predict real-life activity.
We continue to ask new questions regarding the functionality of these treated fabrics and continue to attempt to find new opportunities in which these treated articles can be used to better our lifestyles, our health and our environment. Antimicrobial and odor controlling agents used in textiles have greatly changed over the past 60 years. Over this time, suppliers have developed products that have decreased environmental exposure, reduced human risks, increased broad spectrum effectiveness with lower doses and have improved the overall durability on textiles. It has been a challenge for the industry to develop modern microbiological test methods that are able to keep up with these new technical advances and end-use opportunities.
There are many test methods that exist that measure the antimicrobial properties on treated textiles. Over the past several years, different industry standards groups have worked to globally harmonize these methods (IBRG, OECD, ASTM) or update the current methods to more reflect the more modern technologies and antimicrobial delivery mechanisms (AATCC and ASTM). Modifications of these methods are being standardized to measure everything from bacteria biofilm development on textiles to the generation and measurement of microbial odors under simulated end use scenarios.
This presentation will outline some of the complexities associated with antimicrobial and anti-odor testing, will highlight the current antimicrobial standards used in the market today and will present new test methods in development to measure overall odor control in textiles.
Body Odor and Clothing – Is Your Product Ready for the Fight?—Ben Mead, Hohenstein Group
The skin is the biggest human organ. Through our skin, we establish contact with our surroundings. We perceive movement and regulate our body temperature.
Clothing is constantly with us, whether at work or in our free time. Our skin constantly comes into contact with the most varied types of textiles…even during sleep.
Sweating is vital. However, the fluid sweat, the dampness and not to mention unpleasant body odor pose new challenges to our clothes everyday.
Unpleasant body odor comes from the bacteria of natural skin flora, which break down the different components of sweat and as a result release odorous byproducts. Whilst on naked skin the majority of the sweat evaporates, clothing retains the sweat according to textile quality, causing increasing odor formation. Whether and how strongly we perceive this bad odor depends on the amount of odor molecules that reach our nose.
Yet how can textile manufacturers make their products fit for the fight against sweat odor? Which technologies really achieve effective odor management?
Hohenstein offers competent support and the latest testing methods to determine the odor eliminating properties of textiles. Antibacterial materials and finishes are specifically examined for their effectiveness against odor forming skin bacteria. However, the binding capability of textiles against sweat odor molecules is significant for sweat perception. The stronger the smell adheres to the material, the less noticeable it is.
To measure this binding capability in a laboratory, two methods are used. In the first method, radioactively marked artificial sweat is applied to the textile and textile wearing is realistically simulated over a determined time frame. Radioactive markers allow an exact quantitative determination of emission throughout the experimental period. The manufacturer therefore discovers what percentage of the sweat odor is actually withheld by the textile and thus cannot be smelt.
In the second method, artificial sweat is also applied to the textile but the analysis of the sweat’s odor intensity is carried out by specially qualified odor testers. They determine the threshold value and therefore when people can smell the sample. These results are then evaluated by a software and the odor intensity of the sample is determined.
The textiles undergo endurance testing during wearer trials. Here, the product properties are tested under real conditions. To do this, a minimum of 10 test subjects are employed to wear the textiles being tested during specific activities, for example sport. The analysis here is also carried out by trained odor testers. The sweat odor of the two textiles is directly compared. For example, the product with odor-reducing technology is compared with the conventional version.
If the textile passes the endurance testing, the product can be labeled with the Hohenstein Quality Label “Odor control”. The consumer then knows straightaway that the product also does what it promises.
Odor in Textiles – Understanding the Whole Picture from a Testing Perspective—R. Bryan Ormond, North Carolina State University, Wilson College of Textiles
Developing a comprehensive assessment of odor in textile materials requires the utilization of multiple testing approaches. The selection of these approaches must consider the odorant’s chemical properties, the source of the odor, the end-use application, and the target population. While antimicrobial testing may be appropriate for material technologies that aim to decrease odor generation by inhibiting microbial growth, anti-odor finishes that work by sequestering or binding the odorant molecules must be assessed by odor panels or chemical analysis methods. With these latter two approaches, one provides the subjective human perception of odor intensity while the other provides an objective, repeatable analytical measurement of the quantity of odorant present. Understanding how these methods relate and when they should be applied is the focus of this presentation.
Sensory Evaluation Methods for Measurement of Odor Reduction in Textiles—Michael McGinley, St. Croix Sensory Inc.
Sensory evaluation practices with trained panels of human assessors have been used for decades to assess taste, odor, and texture of foods and beverages. Several presentation methods and standard testing methodologies are commonly used for assessment of odors in textiles. Presentation methods include multiple olfactometry and direct sniff techniques. Standard practices of sensory evaluation include both affective testing and quantitative methods.
Affective sensory methods include test protocols for understanding questions of preference and liking. These procedures most commonly use consumers (i.e. untrained assessors) but may also involve trained assessors to answer questions such as how much something is liked or which sample is preferred.
Trained sensory panels are used for quantitative assessments. The most common quantitative assessments include discrimination tests (e.g. which is stronger) and descriptive analysis (e.g. strength of an attribute such as sweat odor).
This presentation will outline current sensory evaluation techniques with real-world examples of sensory panels, product development screening and claim support tests. Case studies will discuss body odor control on fabrics as well as laundry performance.
The Highs and Lows of Using Human Subjects in the Assessment of Textile Odor—Rachel McQueen, University of Alberta
The problem of odor within textiles is highly complex and multifaceted. Odorants, by nature, are volatile compounds that can be adsorbed by fibers from the environment. Odor precursors (e.g., sweat, sebum) can be transferred and retained by textile fibers and yarns, to then be converted to odor by transient microorganisms within the textile substrate. Human wear trials offer the best prediction of how a textile item will perform during use. However, they present many challenges in their administration and interpretation of results (e.g., time-consuming, require human ethics, difficult to compare from one test session to another, etc.). The purpose of this presentation will be to discuss the challenges and benefits of human wear testing toward odor evaluation within textiles.