Fiber Society Meeting Reveals New Research
By Stephen Michielsen, North Carolina State University
The 136th meeting of the Fiber Society covered a range of topics from new natural fibers to surface modification of fibers. Attendees presented papers on electrospinning, surface modification of fibers and fabrics, antimicrobial properties, medical applications of fibers and textiles, biopolymers, polymer and fiber science, melt-spun fibers, and properties of fibrous assemblies.
Vijoya Sa (Clemson University) won the Society's student paper competition for "Wet Spinning of Fibers Containing High Concentration of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes." Weilin Xu (Wuhan University of Science and Engineering) received the Society’s Distinguished Achievement Award for his accomplishments in textile processing and functional textiles. He presented a paper titled "The Preparation and Characterization of Composite Small Diameter Vascular Graft."
Jason Locklin (University of Georgia) gave the plenary address, “Creating Smart Surfaces for Polymers and Fibers Using Polymer Brushes.” Locklin described the growth of polymers from the surfaces of fibers and films in the “brush” regime. He showed how one can alter the properties on a scale from a few tenths of a nanometer to several hundred nanometers and provide precise control of polymer properties.
Duane Simonson (US Naval Research Laboratory) described the modification of oxidized carbon nanofibers with chlorosilanes to enhance their dispersion in and adhesion to polypropylene.
You-Lo Hsieh (University of California, Davis) used acid hydrolysis to form cellulose nanocrystals that she then modified to enhance processability.
Michael Eason (US Department of Agriculture, USDA) reported on the use of low level ultrasound to assist enzymatic bio-processing of cotton. The USDA group has found that ultrasound can greatly enhance the transport of enzymes to fiber surfaces and thus greatly enhance the reaction rates.
Haskell Beckham (Georgia Tech) described a new approach to covalently attaching cationic dyes to anionic cellulose. He and his coworkers attached dye molecules to strained cyclic ammonium and sulfonium groups. The positively charges oniums would electrostatically adsorb onto cationic cotton surfaces. After adsorption, application of a mild heat would cause the strained ring to open, thus forming a covalent bond to cotton. Using the same approach, they could covalently attach a water-repellant silicone finish.
Konstantin Kornev (Clemson University) described the use of electrospun mats to hold and dispense minute quantities of liquids for such applications as drug delivery. He showed that the Lucas-Washburn theory could be applied nanofiber mats as well as conventional textiles.
Gaurav Agarwal (University Lille Nord de France, ENSAIT) presented results from a study on the uniformity of distribution of cationic fabric softeners on various fabrics using Bromo Phenol Blue dye which adsorbed strongly on the softener but not on the fibers.
Gang Sun (University of California, Davis) showed that by using radical graft polymerization on polypropylene and polyethylene, he could attach chlorhalamines to the fibers, which provided good antimicrobial effectiveness.
Sunghyun Nam (US Department of Agriculture, USDA) described her work to make silver nanoparticles using poly(ethylene glycol) to stabilize the particles in water suspension. To achieve a log 2 antimicrobial effectiveness, she needed to use 11 ppm (owf) of the silver nanoparticles and a test duration of 24 hours.
Ian Hardin (University of Georgia) showed the results of his study in which quaternary ammonium compounds tethered to the surface of fish nets using polymeric brushes greatly reduced the build-up of bacteria and proteins on fish farming nets, even after several months’ exposure.
Medical Applications of Textiles
Victor Maximov (Clemson University) presented a new fiber-based assay for bacterial vaginosis which relied on modifying the surface of fibers to detect sialidase, which is over-expressed when the bacteria are present. He showed good agreement between the new test and the gold standard test, which requires much more time and trained technicians.
Kristofer Sinclair (Clemson University) talked about using capillary channels in fibers to promote the aligned growth of fibroblasts to make artificial tendons.
Navzer Sachinvala (retired) discussed the modification of trehalose with siloxanes to aid in skin restoration and to develop new tissues.
Yusuf Ulcay (University of Uludag) presented a paper on the use of chemical compaction to modify the dilation of vascular grafts. The aim of the study was to reduce bleeding while enhancing the mechanical performance.
Weilin Xu (Wuhan University of Science & Engineering) discussed the development of small diameter vascular grafts. His group developed an elastomeric composite membrane consisting of polyurethane and silk fibroin powder, containing heparin. After six months inside a dog, the vascular grafts were still free of blockage.
Other sessions dealt with fiber production, fabric structures, and their properties. The meeting ended with a talk by Hoon Joo Lee (North Carolina State University) describing how haute couture uses advanced technology in many designs.
|The Fiber Society co-sponsors the Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics (JEFF), along with AATCC, TAPPI, and INDA. For more information about the Fiber Society and future meeting dates, visit http://theFiberSociety.org. Abstracts of all of the talks are also available here.|
© 2011, American Association of Textile
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