Materials Abstracts



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Materials Abstracts

Sharklet Microbial Resistant Micro-pattern for High-touch Surfaces – Michael Greene, Sappi Casting & Release Paper

Sharklet™ is the world’s first technology to inhibit bacteria from attaching, colonizing and forming bio-films through texture alone. It contains no toxic additives or chemicals, and uses no antibiotics or antimicrobials. Sharklet is 90-95% effective at keeping surfaces free of bacteria. Sappi Casting & Release Paper has developed technology to impart the Sharklet™ microtexture onto release papers allowing for the first large scale commercialization of this texture technology. Textured release papers are used to manufacture coated fabrics and laminates for the automotive, aerospace, upholstery, sport shoe, laminate flooring and counter tops, wall coverings, leather goods and garment markets. This presentation will introduce the Sharklet™ microtexture and discuss how it can be used in commercial coated fabric applications.

Nature-Inspired Structural Color and Textiles – Mohan Srinivasarao, Georgia Institute of Technology

Abstract Unavailable

Soy Proteins for Modification of Hydrophobic Materials: Surface Finish and Antibacterial Applications – Carlos L. Salas, North Carolina State University

Controlling the wettability of hydrophobic surfaces is very important in functional textiles. In this work a new approach for surface modification and to enhance the wettability of hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) fibers is proposed by physical adsorption of soybean proteins. The results indicate that the pre-treatment of PP with a cationic surfactant strongly enhances protein adsorption, as confirmed by a significant improvement in water wettability. Furthermore, the results from wicking tests indicate that hydrophobic PP nonwovens become completely hydrophilic and absorb a significant amount of water after protein treatment. These fiber treatment was used as a platform for further functionalization of the surface, such as coupling of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial activity and encapsulation of blood clotting agent thrombin, of interest for applications in biomedical field.

Wet Spinning of Cellulose Nanofibrils into Continuous Filaments – Orlando J. Rojas, Aalto University and North Carolina State University

Hydrogels of native cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and TEMPO-oxidized CNF (TOCNF) were used to produce continuous filaments by wet spinning. Even in the absence of drawing, the obtained cellulose I filaments displayed a tensile strength and Young’s modulus of ca. 300 MPa and 20 GPa. Here we discuss the effects of charge density, hydrogel concentration and flow rate on the properties of the obtained filaments and the approaches we deployed to overcome the lack of wet strength during coagulation to enable spinning into defect-free structures at relatively high rates.

Antimicrobial Sutures: Challenging Clinical and Investment Paradigms – Cody Reynolds, Additive Drug Delivering Devices, Inc., 2017 YEA recipient

Abstract Unavailable

Increasing the Functionality of Textiles with β-Cyclodextrin: Aroma-Therapeutic Textiles as Example – Maureen MacGillivray, Central Michigan University

Aromatherapy is a type of alternative medicine that focuses on improving human health with the use of essential oils or other aromatic plant compounds. The inhalation of essential oils stimulates the part of the brain that is connected to the olfactory system and sends a signal to the limbic area of the brain that controls emotions. This causes the release of chemicals that makes the person feel relaxed or calm and several research studies have demonstrated these effects using the essential oils of lavender and cedarwood. Aroma-therapeutic textiles in this study were developed by forming inclusion compounds between essential oils and the oleophilic cavity of β-cyclodextrin using sol-gel method on cotton fabrics. Psychophysiological responses of twenty female subjects showed stress relief after inhaling the treated textiles. β-Cyclodextrin offers a variety of opportunities to enhance the functional effects of textiles.

Health Care Textiles: Infection Prevention Trends – Brad Bushman, Standard Textiles

Abstract Unavailable

Performance Analysis of Textile Based Temperature Sensor – Muhammad Dawood Husain, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Pakistan

Estimation of skin temperature can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of the certain disease process. This article presents the performance of recently developed textile based temperature sensor in comparison to the standard temperature sensor in a practical environment. The textile temperature sensor is a two layer knitted fabric produced on an electronic flat-bed knitting machine. The skin temperatures of human body were measured by changing various testing conditions such as no. of clothing layers, body movements, and clothing pressure. The temperature profiles of both standard and textile sensors were recorded simultaneously through customized LabVIEW based interface. Both sensors precisely demonstrated the same trends in the temperature profile and experienced the same type of body movement errors.

Innovations in Heat & Flame Protection Using Gore Fabric Technology – Mustafa Arifoglu, W.L. Gore & Associates

W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. is an inventive, technology-driven enterprise focused on discovery and product innovation. The polymer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lies at the core of Gore’s technical capabilities. Its characteristics make it highly valuable in the many products and applications used in very demanding environments, from medical implants in the human body, to clothing worn on expeditions to Mt. Everest, to electronic cables transmitting signals from Mars. This presentation will focus on how we combine the unique properties of expanded PTFE for protective garments with novel technology for heat and flame protection. GORE® PYRAD® Fabric Technology can produce garments that show excellent performance in system level FR tests, without the tradeoffs typically associated with traditional FR textiles (e.g. – metaramid, modacrylic cotton, etc.) or surface treatments. This presentation will share the performance of GORE® PYRAD® versus competitive products in several forms and system level tests.

Revolutionizing Structural Firefighter Protective Clothing Systems for Improved Physiological Comfort – Meredith McQuerry, Florida State University

The purpose of this research was to investigate design modifications for their ability to reduce heat stress during firefighting activities. Four revolutionary turnout prototypes were developed including: a modular system, a vented turnout, a suit with breathable stretch materials, and a combination suit with venting, stretch, and reduced layers. Sweating manikin total heat loss (THL) and predicted physiological responses were determined for each prototype suit, in addition to human wear trial evaluations (core and skin temperature, heart rate, and physiological strain). Results demonstrated improved physiological comfort for the single layer modular system, vented prototype, and combination prototype with venting and reduced layers. This research established a relationship between measured THL values on a thermal manikin and corresponding realized improvements in physiological comfort for the firefighter.

Lessons Learned from the Development of a US Navy Garment using Stitchless Seam Engineering– Bethany Pollack, Propel LLC

Propel is currently engaged in research work for the US Navy to demonstrate the feasibility of alternate seaming technologies in Navy clothing. The research efforts include the development of new materials, the design of testing protocols to compare needle and thread assembly to stitchless technologies, and the design and manufacture of new prototype garments using adhesives and ultrasonic technologies to join seams. Prototype garments have been tested in the laboratory and in a limited user field evaluation. Propel will report on the project’s results, and address the costs and benefits of these new manufacturing approaches to garment assembly for US military clothing. Propel LLC, teamed with the University of Rhode Island, Department of Textiles, Patagonia Inc., Rix Haus, PlatforM Two, and Peckham Inc.

Failure Analysis of Adhesives Used in Fibrous Substrates – Abigail M. Oelker, Exponent Inc.

Adhesives are used in constructing a variety of textiles. Adhesive performance depends upon the formulation, storage and application conditions. Chemical, thermal and mechanical analysis techniques can be utilized to assess adhesive performance and detect degradation (e.g., oxidation, hydrolysis, etc.). Herein we present a case study of a hot melt adhesive, which is applied in the melt and solidifies upon cooling. Used in carpet, the adhesive failed and induced failure modes including delamination and tuft pull-out. Failed carpet samples were analyzed for tuft bind and delamination resistance. Adhesive harvested from the carpet was analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results will be presented and discussed in relation to a root cause analysis of observed failures.

Evaluating Sources of Variability in Forensic Fiber Trace Evidence Examination – Julie L. Bitter, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is commonly used by forensic trace evidence examiners to analyze fibers. Typically, diamond compression cells are used to flatten fiber samples for analysis in transmission using a FTIR microscope. In an effort to better standardize this compression step, an adapter has been designed to use a reproducible amount of torque to flatten the sample prior to analysis. Significant work has also been performed to characterize intra·variability of a fiber set before and after compression within the diamond cell, with the goal of developing better protocols for use by forensic examiners in analyzing samples. The results of work to standardize the compression step, cross·sectional image analysis, and the relation to FTIR spectra will be discussed.

Laboratory Microwave Measurement of the Moisture Content in Seed Cotton and Ginned Cotton Fiber – James Rodgers, USDA-ARS-SRRC

The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages, but until recently most of the applications have focused on on-line measurements (e.g., cotton bales). Small microwave instruments have been introduced for laboratory measurements of fiber moisture content. Methods were first developed for the moisture content of lint (ginned fiber) and then expanded to seed cotton (before ginning). Microwave results for lint and seed cotton were in good agreement with oven drying method results. The microwave analyses were fast, accurate, easy to perform, and required minimal sample preparation.

Photobleaching in Cotton Fibers Dyed Using Red, Yellow, and Blue Direct Dyes During Examination with Microspectrophotometry (MSP) – Amanda L. Forster, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Microspectrophotometry (MSP) is a rapid, nondestructive technique for analysis of color in textile fibers. Color can be an important factor for comparison of many types of forensic trace evidence, but large samples or destructive extraction procedures for thin layer chromatography or other methods of liquid chromatography were previously required for analysis of color in fibers. MSP combines microscopy and ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and eliminates the need for time consuming and destructive extraction of dyes from textile fibers when examining colored fibers with traditional techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While MSP is generally expected to be a nondestructive evaluation method, a loss of color during analysis, or photobleaching can occur. In this work, cotton fabric was dyed with direct dyes in blue, yellow, and red colors at different concentrations. Photobleaching in the MSP was investigated by measuring a specific spot on the fiber periodically over the course of half an hour. Visible color loss and a reduction in absorbance was observed for all three colors, but was most pronounced for the fibers dyed with the red dye. A major goal of this study is to increase awareness of the possibility of photobleaching when analyzing cotton fibers using MSP.