Posters will be available for viewing during the April 1 Welcoming Reception and the following day. Presenters will be in attendance on April 2 from 4:30 – 5:30 pm to discuss their research and address questions.
Novel Concept of Sustainable Dyeing Process
Viswanathan Murugesan Veerapathiran (presenter), Advanced Academy for Development of Textile Technologists (AADTT), Mumbai, India
Reactive dyes for cotton have negatively-charged active groups. Salt is inevitable in the conventional method because it masks the zeta potential developed by cotton fabric when immersed in water. This masking of the zeta potential is what facilitates the negatively-charged dye to get attracted to the fabric. But the same effect can be produced with the help of electric current by passing positive charges to the fabric. By doing this, the TDS content of the effluent and sludge formation is greatly reduced.
Design of Shiny Knitted Fabrics
Ziya Ozek (presenter), Department of Textiles Engineering, University of Namik Kemal, Turkey
Interest in shiny surfaces for circular knitted fabrics is growing. The purpose of this work is to develop shiny circular knitted fabrics to meet fashion demands. Two alternative methods are used to produce such an effect. One method is to use dyeable lurex metalized yarn which enables the glazing effect within the fabric with various colors. The other method is application of the calendering process. The fabrics containing lurex yarn are knitted as single and double jersey, interlock, and three yarn fabric structures. Similar structures without lurex are produced for calender trials. These two methods have some advantages and disadvantages. Regarding clarity and durability of the glazing effect, the first group is superior; whereas with regard to cost, calendared fabrics appear more economical.
Possibilities of Reducing Weft Yarn Wastes In Shuttleless Weaving
Ziya Ozek (presenter), M. Anlıoglu, M. Yıldırım, and F. Demir, Department of Textiles Engineering, University of Namik Kemal, Turkey
The greatest source of solid waste in weaving is due to selvedge waste. Reduction of this waste, together with production of an acceptable selvedge imitation, is a nuisance in shuttleless weaving. A firm, strong selvedge is extremely important not only when producing fabrics, but also in their subsequent treatment. This work determines parameters that affect the picking length and offer improvements in waste percentage. The number of variables affected greatly varies with the type of weft insertion. Experimental work is carried out in a weaving mill. Rapier type weaving machines appear to be most critical based of waste percentage. Air jet and projectile weaving machines create comparatively less waste. Optimization in the loom settings can reduce the waste percentage by as much as 30%.
Comparing the Impact of Standard and Commercial Detergent on Three Brands of Cotton T-shirts
Usha Chowdhary (presenter), Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA
The purpose of the study was to determine dimensional and skewness changes in three brands of cotton T-shirts using standard and commercial detergents. ASTM D6321 was used to conduct the investigation. AATCC Test Method 150 served as the basis for dimensional change and AATCC Test Method 179 (option 3) for the skewness. Seven hypotheses were developed to compare selected structural and performance attributes. The changes were recorded and tested for the first, third, and fifth wash. Results were compared across washes, T-shirt brands, and type of detergent for performance attributes. Four of the seven hypotheses were rejected. Implications for future extension of the reported research are discussed.
Comparative Performance of a Plant-Based Detergent and a Standard Synthetic Detergent on Flame Resistance and Performance Properties of a Children’s Sleepwear Fabric
Haley Moore (presenter) and Rinn Cloud, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
“Green” consumerism in the US has propelled greater availability of plant-based options for household cleaners, such as laundry detergent. With chemical components similar to laundry soaps of the past, it is uncertain if children’s sleepwear laundered in these detergents will meet federal expectations imposed in the Standards for the Flammability of Children’s Sleepwear. These regulations address the flame resistance of non-tight-fitting children’s sleepwear and its durability to 50 home launderings. Our study was conducted to compare the effects of a plant-based detergent and a standard synthetic detergent on the flammability and performance properties of a flame resistant fabric for children’s sleepwear. None of the specimens washed in the plant-based detergent fulfilled the flame resistance requirements set forth in the regulations.
Blister Incidence in Sock-wearing: A Systematic Review
Rachel McQueen (presenter) and Nicole Teresa Furtak, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the literature on blister incidence related to sock-wearing. Five databases were searched and the resulting papers were compared with the inclusion criteria in a multi-round process. To be included in the review, papers were required to discuss socks and blisters in human wear trials. Seven papers met the inclusion criteria and were examined. The literature showed that fiber content (i.e., blends, acrylic, cotton, polyamide, polypropylene, polyester, and wool) and structure (i.e., single knit, padded sole, and separate liner) have a significant effect on blister incidence. Wool blends had a lower blister incidence than other fiber contents for single knit socks. For acrylic fibres, a padded sole resulted in a lower blister incidence than a single knit sole.
Evaluating Thermal Comfort Properties of Wet Fabrics in Winter Clothing
Myles van Keulen (presenter) and J. Batcheller, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
A variety of moisture management fabrics developed for underwear and jacket linings were studied to understand how their finishing treatments, fiber additives, or fiber morphology influenced the thermal properties of winter jackets. Dry and wet underwear fabrics were tested alone and in combination with three-layer jacket systems (i.e. lining, insulation, and shell) on an advanced sweating guarded hot plate in cold ambient conditions (6 °C). The wet insulation values and drying behavior of the fabrics and fabric systems were measured and compared. Finishing treatments, hollow fibers, and use of hydrophobic linings had a significant effect on wet insulation values. Hydrophobic linings also improved the drying time of fabric systems. Differences in drying time between underwear fabrics in single layer form were not apparent in multilayer configurations.
Adapting and Validating Air Sampling Methods for the Detection of Chemicals in Permeation Resistance Testing or Toxic Industrial Chemicals
William Gabler (presenter), Robert Ormond, Christopher Mekeel, and Roger Barker, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Testing parameters in the NFPA 1994 permeation resistance test used to evaluate chemical protective clothing pose challenges to conventional collection and analytical detection methods. This research identified experimental considerations in adapting air sampling methods for each of the five challenge chemicals in the context of the test. Existing OSHA and NIOSH air sampling techniques were adapted and validated. Results reveal that collection, retention, and stability issues of certain analytes could result in variability and reproducibility errors. Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde with high reactivity and vapor pressure, is susceptible to potential under reporting from high levels of analyte loss and sensitivity issues. Chlorine shows considerable loss in the test environment. Issues associated with collection flow rate and challenge concentrations are also detailed.
Effects if Fine Polymer Structure on Dyeing Kinetics
Ramiz Boy (presenter), Richard Kotek, Dongwook Jung, Zuhro Mahmatkulova, Elisha Lliya, North Carolina State University, College of Textiles, Department of Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, Raleigh, NC USA
Much effort has been spent by researchers attempting to dye melt spun polyester and nylon yarns, particularly poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, because of the fiber’s high glass transition temperature, disperse dyeing of PET fibers must be conducted at high pressures and temperatures. Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) has a much lower Tg, making it a preferred polymer for studying the effect of fine structure on dyeing kinetics. A three part study was conducted. First, high-speed spinning conditions were established to make as-spun fibers. Second, dyeing kinetics of these fibers were investigated to determine the effect of take-up speed on the orientation, structure, and physical properties of the resulting as-spun filaments. Dyeing isotherms calculations were based on the Nernst kinetic model. Third, dyeability of unoriented polymer films was examined.
Design of New Bleach Activators for Cellulose Bleaching
Guan Wang (presenter), David Hinks, and Peter Hauser, North Carolina State University; Mary Ankeny, Cotton Incorporated, Cary NC USA
Reported are the effects of varying types of cationic groups used for synthesis of butyrolactam- and caprolactam-based bleach activators. The following cationic groups were used: pyridinium, 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane, nicotinamido, and 3-methylpyridinium. The new bleach activators were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, melting point, and mass spectrometry. They were used in comparative bleaching experiments and their performance was compared to previously reported bleach activators. All prototype activators exhibited bleaching at relatively low temperature and neutral conditions. When 3-methylpyridine was employed as the cationizing amine the bleach performance was comparable to that of the current best butyrolactam bleach activator, TBBC. Importantly, the toxicity of 3-methyl pyridine is substantially lower than the triethylamine used for the synthesis of TBBC.