Viewing Times for Posters
April 9, 6:00 – 8:00 p.m.; April 10, 8:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m.
Presenters in attendance: April 10, 5:00 – 6:00 p.m.
Coordinator: Wilton R. Goynes, Jr.
Proof-of-Concept of a Revolutionary Cooling Shirt with a Thermal Manikin
Janet Brady (presenter) and Todd Cox, Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, Pa., USA; Jennifer Serres and Reginald O’Hara, United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA
Heat-related illness is a critical factor for personnel operating in high heat environments. Traditional cooling technologies are limited by the need for a power supply, the added weight of the product, and the cooling duration. This research investigates a lightweight (471 g), passive cooling technology developed by Arctic Ease that offers multiple hours of sustained cooling. The ability to deliver cooling was evaluated using a thermal manikin. Initial research was conducted under dry heat conditions at 35°C/50% relative humidity as a first step to evaluate the technology. Effective cooling rate was determined to be 30 W for the system. Calculations were based on the manikin zones covered by the shirt. Preliminary dry tests indicated a cooling duration longer than 2 hours.
A Microencapsulation Method for Treating Textiles for Heat Release
Meraj Fatima (presenter), Advanced Academy for Development of Textile Technologists (AADTT), Mumbai, India
Phase change materials (PCM), with inherent properties of latent heat storage and release, can be used in textiles to provide comfortable clothing even in a cold environment. These materials can be applied onto textile substrates using microencapsulation. In this paper, microencapsulation of PCM paraffin wax as the active content is carried out using a mechanical stirring technique. The microcapsules produced were characterized using various analytical methods. PCM microcapsules, when applied on a textile substrate using a coating application technique, have applications in sportswear, aerospace textiles, medical textiles, bedding, and accessories. They have been specifically used in temperature control fabrics.
Organic Finishing on Cotton Fabric using Cassia fistula, Lawsonia inermis, and Carica papaya Extracts
P. Rathna Prabha (presenter); Advanced Academy for Development of Textile Technologists (AADTT), Mumbai, India
Apparel consumers are demanding functionality in products along with aesthetic appearance. To provide a natural and healthier end product, antimicrobial finishes using natural products from Lawsonia inermis, Cassia fistula, and Carica papaya were used. Microencapsulation is one way to provide controlled release of the vital components to the skin. The microcapsules were applied to the fabric using the pad dry cure method. Fabric surface topography was studied using SEM and fabric chemical constituents were studied using FTIR analysis. Characterization of the finished fabric confirmed their antibacterial properties. Agar diffusion testing showed higher antimicrobial
activity for L. inermis and C. papaya extract treatments than for C. fistula extract treatment .
Investigation into the Inkjet Printing of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fabrics by Using UV-Curable Inks Mohammad Nazmul Karim (presenter), C. M. Carr, M. Rigout, and S. G. Yeates, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
PLA fabrics have generated great interest as green materials due to its natural-based origin and biodegradability. However, processing of PLA fabrics is carried out at lower temperatures because of its lower glass transition temperature and melting point. Inkjet printing of PLA fabrics using UV-curable inks was investigated. The samples were printed with hard, semi-flexible, and flexible UV-curable inks using a Mimaki UJF-3042 LED UV inkjet printer, and cured by UV LED technology. Colorfastness and Kawabata hand values (KES-F) of the printed samples were evaluated. Excellent colorfastness to light, moderate crockfastness and washfastness, and good hand values were achieved for all inks tested. The semi-flexible inks were found to be the best of the tested inks.
Alkaline Dissolution Behavior and Dyeing Properties of Sea-island Type PET Nanofilament Knitted Fabrics
Hyun Sung Kim (presenter), Eun Suk Shin and Jung Jin Lee, Dankook University, South Korea
PET nanofilament, with the diameter of a single fiber less than 600 or 800 nm, was recently produced using sea-island technology. The original bicomponent filament comprised several individual ‘islands’ of one component embedded within a ‘sea’ of the other component. After weaving or knitting, the sea component can be dissolved by alkaline treatment thereby producing nanofilaments. In this study, alkaline weight reduction behavior and dyeing properties of sea-island type PET nanofilament fabrics were investigated. The weight reduction ratio was found to increase as treatment time increased. Surface morphology of the alkaline treated fibers was observed by SEM and separation of nanofilament according to treatment time was monitored. The build-up property of disperse dyes was better on 800 nm nanofilament fabric than on 600 nm.
Investigation into the Effect of Dye Scavengers in Increasing the Fading of the Cotton Fabrics Colored with Direct Dyes
Ghada Soliman (presenter), Chris Carr, and Muriel Rigout, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Dye scavengers are commonly added to detergent formulations in order to minimize dye transfer from colored fabrics in domestic laundry washes. While research has focused on the effect of these scavengers on reducing the staining on white fabrics, little research has been performed on the effect of using the scavengers on colored fabrics. In this study, the effect of dye scavengers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinylpyridine derivatives on the fading of a colored fabric during the washing process was evaluated. The interaction between dye scavenger polymers and fugitive dyes in washing liquors led to the expected reduction in staining of the adjacent white fibers. However, a marked increase in fading of the colored fabrics was also observed.
In Situ Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Cotton Containing Cyclodextrin-Polyacrylic Copolymer for Functionalization of Cotton Against Bacteria
Samar Sami Sharaf (presenter), A. Hebeish, A. El-Shafei, and S. Zaghloul, National Research Center, Egypt
This research presents a new approach for functionalization of cotton fabrics against bacteria. It comprises (a) synthesis and characterization of two polymeric products that can be referred to as reactive copolymer (monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted with acrylic acid AA) (MCT-βCD-g-PAA), and normal copolymer (β- cyclodextrin grafted with acrylic acid AA) (βCD-g-PAA), (b) reacting cotton with the reactive copolymer (c) treatment of the chemically modified cotton so obtained with silver nitrate, (d) In situ reduction of silver ions using either the copolymer (βCD-g-PAA) or a conventional reducing agent, namely, sodium borohydride, and (e) monitoring the antibacterial activity and resilience properties of the modified cotton fabrics. The finished fabrics displayed superior antibacterial activity along with good fabric stabilization as indicated by fabric resilience.
The Effects of Silver Antimicrobial Agents on the Physical and Thermophysiological Properties of Burn Pressure Garments
Nilufer Y.Varan (presenter) Istanbul Technical University, Department of Textile Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey; Peter J. Hauser, Martin W. King, and Jeff D. Krauss, North Carolina State University, Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, Raleigh, N.C., USA; and Tirthankar Ghosh, The Dow Chemical Company, Philadelphia, Pa., USA
In this study, novel burn pressure garments having a durable antimicrobial property were developed using a silver nitrate antimicrobial agent procedure. Commercial wireless pressure sensors were used to control the pressures of burn pressure garments in an acceptable medical range. XPS, SEM, and FTIR analysis, physical properties (air permeability, stiffness, bursting strength, stretch properties), thermophysiological properties (thermal resistance (Rct) and isolation properties (clo unit) were tested. Our results showed that a satisfactory durable antimicrobial activity was obtained. A slight decrease was observed in air permeability, bursting strength, and drapeability, while a slight increase was observed for stiffness, thermal resistance, and isolation properties. Results show that these novel burn pressure garments decrease infection and support comfort during long periods of use.
Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Processes for Nonwovens
Jonathan Halbur (presenter), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA
Nanoparticle modification of inorganic thin films, such as TiO2 or Al2O3, represents a method to enhance the catalytic or antimicrobial behaviors of a material. Application of nanoparticle inks is challenging, as surfactants used to stabilize the particles can interfere with or prevent nanoparticle (NP) adsorption. This work shows the efficacy of attaching ligand-free Ag nanoparticles onto TiO2 surfaces formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Sonochemical synthesis is used to create Ag NPs in aqueous solution at room temperature. After ALD, dip coating results in the uniform decoration of the ligand free Ag nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface. Nanoparticle adsorption is examined by TEM and EDS. Finally, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue is used to assess the photocatalytic efficiency of the fiber based composite.
Structure-Property Process Relationship for Meltblowing
Suman Sinha-Ray (presenter) and Alexander L. Yarin, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA; and Behnam Pourdeyhimi, The Nonwovens Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh N.C., USA
The meltblowing (MB) process, being one of the most important nonwoven processes, has not been systematically studied in nonwoven industries. In this work, we studied polymer jets experiencing strong stretching and flapping being subjected to the pulling action of a high-speed surrounding axisymmetric gas jet. The bending perturbations of polymer melt jets are triggered by the surrounding turbulent eddies and enhanced by the distributed lift force acting on the jets. Quality of meltblown polymer nonwovens produced by meltblowing was also predicted by the angular distribution of fibers in the lay-down, as well as the deposited mass distribution. Finally, a theoretical model was proposed to predict tensile behavior of the meltblown nonwoven by including the dependences of Young’s modulus and the hardening parameter on strain.
Structures of Needlepunch Fabrics and Needling Mechanism
Ning Sun (presenter), North Carolina State University, Raleigh N.C., USA
Needlepunching mechanically reorients and entangles fibers by repeated penetrations with barbed needles to consolidate structures and enhance properties. Needlepunched nonwovens hold a large and continuous growing market share. To overcome challenges encountered, such as the demands of high delivery speed, high density needling, and more sophisticated needle designs, fundamental understandings of needlepunch mechanisms are necessary. This project is investigating how processing parameters impact fibrous structures and properties, eventually, with the Process-Structure-Property relationship established. A two-layer sample was designed with Nylon and PET needlepunched together, as their distinguished staining properties allow visualizing structures in 2- and 3-dimensions. Influences of various processing parameters were studied with part of the results discussed here.
Melt-Spun Bi/tricomponent Fibers Exhibiting Shape Memory: A Mesoscale to Macroscale Experimental and Theoretical Study
Syamal S. Tallury (presenter),1,2 Behnam Pourdeyhimi,1,3 Melissa A. Pasquinelli,1 and Richard J. Spontak.2,3 1Fiber and Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA, 2Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA, 3Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA
Shape memory refers to the ability of a structure to assume at least one temporary deformed state and subsequently recover its original form upon the application of an external stimulus. Conventionally, thermally responsive shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are synthesized to possess a molecular network, with either physical or chemical crosslinks, and stimuli responsive features such as glassy or crystalline regions. Our work focuses on developing scalable shape-memory materials comprising of commercially available polymers. We demonstrate rapid and excellent thermal shape recovery in bicomponent and tricomponent filaments with a core/sheath cross-sectional geometry composed of an ABA triblock copolymer and polyolefin homopolymers. We investigate this unique behavior using thermo-mechanical measurements in conjunction with mesoscale simulation techniques to understand the underlying interfacial behavior of copolymer/homopolymers at the molecular scale.
Novel High Surface Area Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Nonwoven Winged Fiber Scaffolds Exposed to Pulsatile Fluid Flow Increase RUNX2 Expression in Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells
Stephen A. Tuin (presenter),1 Sean M. Miller,1 Daniel J. Cunningham,1 Wayne T. Pfeiler,1 Susan H. Bernaki,1 Behnam Pourdeyhimi,2 and Elizabeth G. Loboa.1,3 1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA & North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA, 2College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA, 3Materials Science Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C., USA
The purpose of this study was to characterize proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) cultured on novel three-dimensional high surface area poly(L-lactic acid) nonwoven winged fiber scaffolds under static and pulsatile fluid flow (PFF) conditions. Live/Dead staining showed more viable cells attached to winged scaffolds for all conditions compared to round fiber controls. Multifactor ANOVA results indicated there was a significant increase in RUNX2 expression on winged scaffolds compared to controls for all shear stresses. Finally, winged scaffolds subjected to 3 dyne/cm2 showed a statistically significant increase in RUNX2 compared to winged scaffolds at 0 dyne/cm2. These results demonstrate that winged scaffolds can support hASC proliferation and suggest they were able to respond to one hour of PFF at 3 dyne/cm2.