Session: Protective Textiles
Wednesday, March 25
10:30 AM – Noon
Moderator: Seshadri S. Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
Ventilation of Firefighter Turnout Gear: Reducing Heat Stress and Improving Physiological Comfort
Meredith McQuerry, TPACC North Carolina State University
The purpose of this research was to evaluate clothing ventilation designs for their ability to reduce heat stress incurred during firefighting activities. Ventilation applications were implemented on structural turnout suits, including both active and passive systems, to determine the benefit of ventilation towards heat loss. A total of five ventilation designs were evaluated on a sweating manikin for thermal and evaporative resistance. From these measurements, a predicted total heat loss (THL) was calculated for each design and compared back to a control suit. A large improvement in heat loss was measured, specifically, with the maximum open ventilation design. The results from this study will be used to design state of the art prototypes as part of the revolutionary modern turnout suit project.
Pilot Scale Coating of Fabrics with Fluorodecyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane/fluoroelastomer Blends for Water and Liquid Chemical Repellent Clothing
Quoc Truong, US Army Natick Soldier RDE Center
The US Army Natick Research Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) had successfully demonstrated a scale-up 24-inch continuous dip/pad/dry coating process for a durable, conformal coating. This coating was developed based on the use of very low surface tension fluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cage-like molecule and fluorinated elastomer. When it is applied, the resulting omniphobic fabrics resist surface wetting by a wide range of liquids having high-to-very-low surface tension, while remaining durable after repeated washing and abrasion testing. Material syntheses will be shared, and coating solution preparation and scale-up pilot coating process parameters will be discussed. Comparative data on surface, chemical, and physical properties of lab-scale versus pilot-scale coated omniphobic fabrics, and follow on work, will be presented.
Session: Medical Textiles
1:45– 4:00 PM
Moderator: Brian Shiels, PBI Performance Products Inc
Gina Sloan, Microban International
Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) affect approximately 5% of the hospitalized population and can cost up to US$40 billion annually. Soft surfaces within the hospital are an important but often overlooked component of the inanimate environment surrounding patients. Fabrics can be difficult to disinfect and have recently been shown to harbor bacteria such as MRSA. Few published textile treatments are capable of creating a self-sanitizing textile and none are EPA registered. Microban has developed a textile that is able to reduce surface bacterial populations by 99.9% within 1 minute. In addition, the textile provides antibacterial protection over the course of 24 hours during normal use. These treatments, along with routine infection control measures, provide an additional component to reduce HAI and aid with infection control.
Measuring Compression in Compression Garments
Erin Kirkpatrick, Exponent
Compression garments have long been used in the medical field for a variety of applications, including the reduction of swelling and muscle stiffness. They are now being marketed and sold to consumers for use as performance garments for sports and fitness activities. The competitive marketplace requires claims associated with the compression functions of a given garment to be verified by both testing and analysis. In this talk, we will present an overview of the different approaches that have been used to measure compression in compression garments, provide some examples, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches to testing.
Advances in Antimicrobial Testing Using Globally Harmonized, Industry Accepted Test Methods
Robert A. Monticello, International Antimicrobial Council
The use of antimicrobial agents as preservatives for various materials has been around for decades. Recently, a variety of antimicrobial agents have been added to textile substrates for the prevention of bacterial odor and the control of microbial deterioration on consumer products, and the decrease of bacterial cross contamination in the medical industry. This presentation provides a critical review of current antimicrobial technologies and methodology and looks at the suitability of various test methods for evaluating product function. It provides examples of extended study protocols and modifications of current test methods that can be used to assess the performance of treated textiles in hygienic and odor control applications. The durable activity of commercially-available antimicrobial polymeric systems will be used as examples using several different testing methods.
Novel Bi-Component Fibers for Medical Application
Walter Chappas, Georgia Southern University
The Herty Advanced Materials Development Center at Georgia Southern University and the Nonwovens Institute at NC State University recently initiated a Cooperative Research and Development program to accelerate the innovation of novel specialty fibers including islands-in-the-sea and other advanced bi-component fibers. This includes rapid prototyping of novel product concepts, such as cell scaffolds, and high performance filtration media. Early work is focusing on the formation and subsequent processing of both INS and high surface area sheath-core type fibers. An example of the latter, such as the winged fiber, is of particular interest because of its deep channels that can be tailored to concentrate specific production drugs or, alternatively, capture particulate, chemical, and biological insults.
Session: Functional Textiles
Thursday, March 26
9:00 AM – 11:45 AM
Moderator: Fred Cook, Georgia Institute of Technology
Functionalization of Nylon 6 Nanomembranes with Polymer Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Water Treatment Applications
Nidia Trejo, Cornell University
In this study, 15-nm carboxylic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles (CA-Fe3O4 NPs) were applied to 20 wt% Nylon 6 nanomembranes by three different loading methods. The carboxylic acid polymeric coating on the NPs facilitated loading by 1) simultaneous electrospraying/electrospinning, 2) grafting of CA-Fe3O4 NPs onto electrospun Nylon 6 via EDC/NHS chemistry, and 3) layer-by-layer deposition of PEI/NPs on electrospun Nylon 6. The three preparation methods were evaluated for homogeneous NP dispersion via electron microscopy and CIELAB spectrophotometry. Additionally, the durability of the treatments were evaluated with ICP-AES after washing the treated fibers at different pH conditions under agitation for varied time intervals. In end use, these NP incorporated membranes can serve for water treatment applications due to the polymer coating’s adsorption and magnetite’s super paramagnetic properties.
Effect of Nano-Polysiloxane Treatment of Jute Fabric on the Mechanical Properties of Jute: Polyester Resin Biocomposite
L. Ammayappan, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology, India
Compatibility between jute fiber and resin in a bio-composite is still a researchable issue. Jute fabric was treated with nano-polysiloxane as coupling agent in different concentrations to improve interfacial adhesion between jute fiber and resin. Treated jute fabric/polyester resin based bio-composite was prepared by a hand-laying method and evaluated for their mechanical properties. Results inferred that mechanical properties of polysiloxane-treated jute fabric and respective bio-composites gave improvement at a lower concentration (< 0.5%) in comparison with a control sample, while reduced at a higher concentration (> 1%) due to the plasticizing effect of polysiloxane on jute fiber. The flexural modulus and inter-laminar shear strength of 0.1% polysiloxane-treated bio-composites gave 190% and 107% improvement respectively in comparison with untreated jute based bio-composite.
Agrochem Based Chemistries for Biomedical and Commercial Applications
Michael Jaffe, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Sugars and proteins may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers, thermoplastics, thermosets, crosslinking agents, and additives for a broad range of biomedical and commercial applications, including the replacement of bisphenol-A. Isosorbide is derived from glucose by catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol followed by dehydration. Furandicarboxylic acid can be made from fructose through the intermediate 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Synthesis of isosorbide-based hydroxy acid monomers with terephthalic acid or furandicarboxylic acid enables creation of stereoregular homopolymers with high Tg and mechanical properties. Incorporation of the isosorbide terephthalate monomers into PET has been demonstrated to raise the Tg of the polyester, which enables hot-filling. Modification of PLA or PCL with isosorbide based hydroxyacids is expected to affect cell attachment to the polyester as well as to the degradation rate.
Plasma Coupling for Improved Herbal Finishing of Textiles
Seshadri Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
Recently, there has been upsurge in research on plasma treatment of textiles. In this research, atmospheric plasma is used as a medium to impart antimicrobial characteristics to textiles while using herbal (natural) finishes. Two different herbal plants, guava leaf (Psidium guajava) and prickly chaff flower (Achyranthes aspera) have been explored in this research. The antimicrobial efficacy of cotton textile fabrics treated with these herbal finishes after plasma treatment was compared with non-antimicrobial plasma treated fabrics. Results show that these natural components were compatible with high-energy atmospheric pressure plasma. Fabric pretreated with oxygen plasma enhanced antimicrobial characteristics due to the creation of carbonyl groups after plasma pretreatment. This research showcases the use of naturally available and non-synthetic biocidal chemicals with the view of developing sustainable finish applications in the textile industry.
Session: New Developments
2:15 – 3:45 PM
Moderator: Robina Hogan, United Soybean Board
Simultaneous Measurements of Cotton Fiber Maturity, Fineness, Ribbon Width, and Micronaire
James Rodgers, USDA-ARS-Southern Regional Research Center
Maturity (degree of secondary wall development) and fineness (linear density) are important cotton quality and processing properties, but their direct measurement is often difficult and/or expensive to perform. An indirect, but critical measurement of maturity and fineness is micronaire, which is used to “class” or grade cotton. The Cottonscope is a small-footprint, cost-effective instrument that measures fiber micronaire, maturity, fineness, and ribbon width simultaneously in water using polarized light microscopy and image analysis. Cottonscope results yielded very good agreement to the often cited Uster HVI (micronaire) and AFIS (maturity, fineness) results. Cottonscope distributions (maturity, ribbon width, etc.) are superior to those from the AFIS unit. The ability to identify distinct cotton fiber blends will be discussed.
Textile Size from Soy Proteins for High-Speed Weaving
Helan Xu, University of Nebraska
Biodegradable sizing agents from triethanolamine (TEA)-modified soy proteins have been developed to replace polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sizes for high-speed weaving. Previously, we found soy protein showed better sizing performance properties, compared to wheat gluten and keratin. However, for high-speed weaving, sizing films from raw soy protein still lacked flexibility and adhesiveness. Introduction of TEA considerably improved the film properties and sizing properties of soy protein. Compared to PVA, TEA-modified soy protein size had remarkably better biodegradability, improved capability of hair coverage, comparable film flexibility, and adhesion to fibers. TEA-modified soy protein had weaving efficiencies in industrial-scale tests similar to commercial PVA sizes. In general, TEA-modified soy protein could be an effective substitute for PVA to promote sustainability in the textile sizing industry.
Novelty Nonwoven Made of Flax
Marc Jolly, Noraflin Inc.
When a material needs to be durable and robust with high stiffness, the natural characteristics of flax fiber can be used. Flax fibers have many advantageous attributes that can be used meaningfully in composites. Norafin, a solution provider for specialty and technical nonwovens, has ventured into flax fiber processing and introduced the material into its hydroentangling process. The flax nonwovens created can be used in composites and various applications thanks to their nonwoven texture and properties such as smooth surface and wood-like optical appearance. Its use as a renewable resource is an important benefit. Applications include sports and leisure activities, wind energy, construction, packaging, boat building, and innovative interior design.