Session: Medical & Protective Textiles
Wednesday, April 10
9:45 AM – Noon
Moderator: Seshadri S. Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
Potential Development of a New Cotton-Based Antimicrobial Wipe
Ryan P. Slopek, USDA ARS SRRC
The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorbed nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Pectin and natural waxes in greige fibers were found to play a significant role in the adsorption of cationic surfactant by greige cotton nonwovens. Cationic biocide adsorption can be controlled by varying the chemical properties of the surfactant solution. Co-formulating the biocide solution with electrolytes or nonionic surfactants greatly reduced/eliminated the adsorption of cationic biocide on the cotton-based nonwoven substrates. The results of this research are expected to aid the development of environmentally friendly cotton-based antimicrobial wipes.
Halamine Chemistry and Its Applications in Chemical and Biological Protective Materials
Gang Sun, University of California, Davis
Halamine structures possess oxidative disinfection abilities that are as powerful as free chlorine, are rechargeable in laundering by chlorine bleach, and safer than free chlorine on textiles. Both cyclic and acyclic halamine structures have been incorporated onto fibers and fabrics in wet finishing processes. Biocidal halamine products can be found in consumer and medical textiles. More recently, halamine structures have been chemically grafted onto polypropylene, polyethylene, and several olefin polymers during a reactive extrusion processes, and nanofibrous membranes with chemical and biological decontamination functions have been prepared. Special protective performance and potential applications of polymers grafted with halamine structures and halamine nanofibrous membrane materials will be discussed in detail.
Rehabilitation Performance Studies of Burn Pressure Garments with Antimicrobial Triciosan Chemical Agents
Nilufer Y. Varan, Istanbul Technical University
In this study, the infection protection of burn pressure garments as burn scar treatments was tested. Three different high elastane nylon/spandex warp and weft knitted fabrics used for burn pressure garments were treated with an antimicrobial triclosan by the exhaustion method. Antimicrobial activity, wash durability, FTIR, and SEM analyses were conducted on the treated samples. Pressures were measured using wireless pressure sensors to evaluate the pressures exerted by these garments before and after treatment. The antimicrobial activity was good for each fabric. The measured pressures after treatments were in an acceptable range, which will help the rehabilitation of burn scars.
MicroSilver-A Novel Pure Silver Antimicrobial with Porous and Micro-Sized Particles
Karl F. Richter, RFH BioTek Inc.
MicroSilver is a highly effective and long lasting antimicrobial that is used in textiles, medical devices, wound care, dermatological skincare, oral care products, polymers, paints, and coatings. MicroSilver is a pure (>99.9%) elemental silver powder additive consisting of highly porous, micro-sized particles of pure silver. MicroSilver is produced in Germany in a complex physical manufacturing process with no other chemicals and under ISO 9001 & ISO 13485 (medical device) manufacturing standards. Highly porous micro-particles combine (1) a very high surface area resulting in excellent efficacy at low concentrations with (2) a micro-sized particle that is safe for both the environment and humans.
Session: Sustainable Processes and Products
2:00– 4:00 PM
Moderator: Robina Hogan, United Soybean Board
New Development in Plasma Treatment of Cotton Nonwovens
Both low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma technologies are finding many applications in processing and finishing of textiles. Their use can impart special properties (e.g., wettability, dye uptake, and adhesion) to the newly functionalized substrate surface, as well as removing hydrophobic impurities. The effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric pressure plasma on quantitative surface modification of cotton nonwovens was studied. Various analytical techniques such as wax content determination, contact angle measurement, and wickability evaluation were used. Chemical functional changes were examined using FTIR and XPS analysis. Changes in mechanical properties also were evaluated. The presentation will compare and contrast the outcomes of two important plasma technologies that may help develop new applications of cotton nonwovens in the absorbent hygiene sector.
Cell and Tissue Culture Scaffolds by Green Electrospinning
Seshadri S. Ramkumar, Texas Tech University
Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has enabled the production of microporous and nanoporous fibers. In the field of life sciences, electrospinning is being used in the development of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for cell and tissue culture applications. However, many procedures use synthetic/natural polymers dissolved in organic solvents. In the present study, a 3D scaffold was developed using the principle of green electrospinning. Mechanical scaffold properties (e.g., porosity, breathability, air permeability, and tensile strength) were evaluated to diversify scaffold applications. The evaluation and understanding of these scaffold properties are of critical importance in the development of biomedical applications. Scaffold filtration properties will also be evaluated. The scaffold will eventually be tested for its ability to support cell and tissue culture applications.
Advanced Eco-Friendly Laundry Additive: A Novel Fabric Softener Providing Moisture Management and Minimizing Drying Time
Michael Kutsenko, Goulston Technologies Inc.
Expanding on our surface modification technology, Goulston Technologies has developed Lurol-LA—an advanced eco-friendly laundry additive. Lurol-LA is an alternative laundry additive which, when added at the rinse cycles, provides advanced moisture management properties in combination with improved softness. Addition of Lurol-LA in the rinse cycle also helps to minimize the amount of residual water and reduces drying time saving up to 30% in energy costs.
Submicron Fiber Nonwovens from Ingeo, A Sustainable Polymer for Filter Media
Gajanan Bhat, University of Tennessee
Ingeo is a commercially produced polylactic acid (PLA) polymer. Fibers of this type are making a significant impact in the nonwovens, filtration, and packaging industries by providing an annually renewable material with a smaller environmental footprint. A melt blown grade of Ingeo PLA was processed on pilot scale melt blowing equipment. The effect of special die and processing conditions on the structure and properties of the nonwoven webs were investigated. The resulting nonwoven webs were tested. By appropriately selecting process conditions, fiber diameters of half micron or less can be achieved providing exceptional performance in desired applications. The development of structure and properties during processing of this biopolymer into submicron fibers will be discussed.
Session: Fiber Advancements
Thursday, April 11
9:00 AM – 11:15 AM
Moderator: Eugene Wilusz, Natick Soldier RD&E Center
Continuous Dynamic Analysis: Evolution of Storage and Loss Modules of a Fiber with Increasing Strain
Sandip Basu, Agilent Technologies
Understanding the mechanical behavior of fibers is important for their applications in textiles and composite materials. This is especially true for very small diameter fibers (nano- and micro-fibers), where the properties can be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. In this work, a novel test instrument and method are used to measure the storage and loss modulus of thin fibers as a continuous function of strain. The results on thin fibers of semi-crystalline polymers, such as polypropylene and polyester, show a dramatic increase in dynamic storage modulus with strain due to increasing alignment of the amorphous molecules with the crystalline regions. However, the corresponding decrease in the loss factor indicates a significant drop in fiber stretchability.
PURE Filter Stock
Nicole Nichols Wilson, Pure Filter Solutions
The progression of development: Determining the need for a product, finding a solution that would cut costs for companies while at the same time be a better solution for the environment, the technical development of the PURE filter, performance parameters of the current product, development of new filters including the Polymer and AC filters to meet specific applications and customers needs, broadening our markets for other applications with the filters, and our current endeavor to penetrate the fracking produced water/reuse market.
Measurement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Fineness: Method Comparisons and Fiber Growth Analyses
James Rodgers III, USDA ARA SRRC
Maturity (degree of secondary wall development) and fineness (linear density) are important cotton fiber quality and processing properties. Most maturity and fineness measurements are slow, laborious, require chemicals, and/or require expensive instruments. The Cottonscope is a small-footprint instrument that measures maturity and fineness in water using polarized light microscopy and image analysis. Cottonscope measurements were rapid, precise, accurate, and easy to perform. Operational and environmental impacts were studied. Cottonscope results were compared to three other maturity and fineness techniques. Very good agreement was observed between the Cottonscope and the other techniques, and to HVI micronaire. Cottonscope average and distribution measurements have also been used on developing and mature fibers to monitor cell wall development and fiber growth parameters.
Pushing the Functional Limits of Textiles and Apparel
Jintu Fan, Cornell University
The human body’s own ability to survive in various environments is very limited. Clothing, as a portable environment or second skin, is essential to maintain comfort and life. Ideal clothing should offer maximum protection, comfort, and aesthetic appearance. When these three requirements are in conflict, optimizations are needed. The development of functional textiles and apparel has been truly multidisciplinary, involving biomimetics, ergonomics, nanotechnology, engineering sciences, physiology, and psychology, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the challenges in this area and present our recent work including some novel functional textile materials and systems and latest apparel evaluation technologies. Theoretical and experimental investigations aimed at improved understanding of the interactions between humans, clothing, and environment will also be discussed.
Session: New Innovations
11:15 – 11:45 AM
Moderator: Fred L. Cook, Georgia Institute of Technology
Durable photochromic materials are a rapidly expanding area of interest with applications such as light controlled drug delivery systems, biosensors, and as a cell growth matrix. Electrospun nanofibers, in particular, can be used as building blocks of high performance devices and in a variety of 3D structures. Photochromic nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning using 1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[2H-indole-2,3’-[3H]phenanthr[9,10-b](1,4)oxazine] as the photochromic compound. The resultant nanofibers were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, FE-SEM, and wide angle X-ray diffraction. CIE colorimetric values were used to determined color build-up of photochromic nanofibers with and without UV irradiation. The resultant photochromic nanofibers showed that amorphous nanofibers produced better photoswitching than crystalline nanofibers. Overall, photochromic nanofibers demonstrated very good photostability, with photofading being greater than photocoloration.
Session: New Innovations (cont'd)
2:15 – 3:45 PM
Designing of Chromatic Materials with Nanoparticles: Synthesis to Device Fabrication
Stephen H. Foulger, Clemson University
The term chromatics is employed to broadly define the science of color. Color perception in humans stems from the interaction of spectral discriminating receptors of the human eye with the spectrum of light characterized by wavelengths between 380 nm and 740 nm. Variations in the observed color of an analyte are routinely used as the basic mechanism in the development of a sensory system. Object color characteristics are based on a range of optical phenomena intrinsic to the item, such as its absorption, reflection, emission characteristics, and collective properties. Three uses of nanoparticles for the creation of chromatic materials and devices will be discussed: for single particle emitting devices, for biological applications of multifunctional nanoparticles, and for device development through optoelectronic colloids.
Cutting Edge Technology for Brand Protections and Anti-Counterfeiting Measures
Karim Berrada, Applied DNA Sciences Inc.
Counterfeiting and blending of high-end products with cheaper material has become a major liability issue for major brand names. An easy and rapidly way to detect counterfeited products and to prosecute counterfeiters is needed. Applied DNA Sciences has created and modified botanical DNA marks that are resistant to various harsh treatments. These DNA marks were bound to either yarns using lick rollers or extruders in the case of amorphous material such as nylon and PET. Weaved fabrics were also marked during the finishing process, circumventing the need for any additional steps. In all textiles tested, the DNA mark was retrieved and forensically authenticated. This technology provides a way of authenticating textile products at the DNA level, which is the globally accepted gold standard for forensic evidence.
Microwave-Promoted Deposition of Functionalized, Nanoscopic Silica Coatings for Protective Textile Applications
Jeffery Owens, Air Force Research Laboratory
Microwave irradiation of functionalized siloxanes has shown significant promise in treating various synthetic and natural fiber compositions. Microwave technology can be easily integrated into existing textile manufacturing lines. This treatment method is used to impart fiber textile compositions with water/oil repellency, anti-bacterial, sporicidal, and chemical warfare agent neutralizing qualities. Treated materials self-extinguished upon exposure to burning solvents, gave water contact angles of >150° with 8-µL droplets, dodecane contact angles of >135° with 8-µL droplets, and resisted absorption and degradation when exposed to 1:3 solutions of nitric and hydrochloric acids (aqua regia), to 1:3 solutions of 30% aqueous peroxide and concentrated sulfuric acid (piranha solution), and 15% aqueous sodium hypochlorite.