Session: Sustainability in Textiles
Wednesday, March 25
10:30 AM – Noon
Moderator: Kanti A. Jasani, Performance & Technical Textile Consulting
Advances in Sustainable Textile Wet Processing
Peter Hauser, North Carolina State University.
The textile wet processing industry is a major user of the world’s resources of water and energy. Recognizing that these resources are limited, the textile industry is developing procedures and processes to use them more wisely as the world population and textile consumption continue to grow. Use of textile chemicals and fibers from renewable resources is being expanded while textile processes that require large amounts of energy, chemicals, and water are being replaced with new ideas that minimize our scarce resources. Increased use of enzymes, lower liquor ratio equipment, higher color yield colorants, and alternatives to traditional water-based processes will be presented, and suggestions for the future will be discussed.
The Changing Landscape of Chemicals in Consumer Products
Amanda Cattermole, Cattermole Consulting Inc.
Today, many brands, retailers, and manufacturers are facing mounting pressure from a variety of sources regarding chemicals used in the manufacture of their products and supply chains. Consumers and NGO's are demanding a reduction in the number of hazardous chemicals, and the legislative landscape around the use of chemicals is complex and constantly evolving. Companies must address how their products are made and look more deeply into their supply chains. This presentation will discuss the ever changing landscape that consumer brands face and some solutions that may help them navigate towards the use of less hazardous chemicals in their products and supply chains.
Recent Developments in Environmentally Friendly Wrinkle Free Finishes of Cotton Fabrics
Gang Sun, University of California, Davis
Direct esterification is a main reaction between aromatic polycarboxylic acids with cotton cellulose. This reaction, tested in this laboratory recently, has a significant impact in the development of novel chemical crosslinking agents and functional finishing technologies for cotton cellulose. Any aromatic polycarboxylic acid, including dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, could serve as crosslinkers to cellulose. Additionally, any chemicals capable of catalyzing acidic dehydration reactions to form esters could be used as well in these reactions. This presentation will provide a detailed summary on the latest progress in understanding the chemistry of novel crosslinking agents and environmentally friendly catalysts for these reactions.
Session: Herman & Myrtle Goldstein Student Paper Competition
1:45 – 4:00 PM
Moderator: Fred Cook, Georgia Institute of Technology
Student papers are judged on originality, scientific value, and presentation. First, second, third, and fourth place awards are presented.
Session: Advances in Wet Processing
Thursday, March 26
9:00 – 11:15 AM
Moderator: Bryan Dill, Archroma
Efficient and Responsible Methods for Indigo Dyeing and Garment Washing
R. Michael Tyndall. Cotton Incorporated
Sustainability has become an important factor for industries around the world. As one of the more water and energy intensive industries, indigo dyeing and garment processing is no exception. Sustainability begins with the design of the product, which takes into consideration all of its components and processing. Meeting governmental and customer effluent emission standards are integral in a sustainable business model. Consumers and brands are increasingly demanding “green” alternatives as pressures on the water supply and climate grow. Producing fashionable garments in a sustainable manner will become a major factor in sourcing decisions for brands and retailers. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of techniques and technology that can yield significant reductions in water, energy, and environmental impact in production settings.
Novel Innovations for the Cold Temperature Textile Processing
Ole Bill Jorgensen, Novozymes A/S, Denmark
Novozymes continues to develop solutions that significantly reduce chemical consumption, energy usage, and water requirements in textile production. By combining processes or simply working under milder conditions, enzymes have the ability to positively impact the sustainability of textile production. New cellulases are capable of achieving effective and consistent biopolishing at 30 °C to 55 °C. A novel, low-temperature, peroxidase-based product has been designed to give a wide range of fashion effects in garment dyeing and finishing using a cold (20 °C to 50 °C), fast, and repeatable process. Both applications are proven to provide significant advantages. Through the use of biotechnology, textile processors now have the ability to select solutions that will reduce energy usage, increase production capacity, and improve sustainability in textile wet processing.
Compatibility Between C6 Water Repellent and Fire Retardant for a One-Step Treatment
Magali Brown, NICCA USA
End customers have become extremely demanding regarding the performance of their textiles. However, the industry has to match these new requirements without increasing the price of the final products. From a chemical manufacturer’s point of view, these new demands translate to developing agents that cost less or will decrease the process time. NICCA USA has created a new C6 water repellent and bromine-free fire retardant that are compatible and can be used in the same bath. This agent imparts both properties without damaging the hand of the textile. This paper will explain the chemistry involved and how it answers pressing demands of the textile industry.
Ecological Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibers with Novel Insoluble Reactive Dyes
Jaime I. N. Rocha Gomes, ECOFOOT, Portugal
Dyeing cellulosic fibers with insoluble reactive dyes is a process that leaves the effluent clean, saves water and energy in the washing off, and uses less chemicals. The dyes were developed with a new attitude in mind towards the dyeing process, where huge amounts of water are currently used in the washing off process and the effluent is heavily charged with salt and color. With these new dyes, it is possible to dye without salt and to leave the effluent clean due to the precipitation of the insoluble dye. The dyes react at neutral pH and at temperatures from 45 ºC to 60 ºC, depending on the type of material and its end use. Washing off involves two to three rinses with cold water.
Session: Advances in Specialty Materials and Finishing
11:15 – 11:45 AM
Moderator: Ken Greeson, Cotton Incorporated
Evaluating lnsulative Materials for Conductive Thread
Mary Ruppert-Stroescu, Oklahoma State University
Conductive threads are used in wearable electronic garments because they are flexible, conduct electricity, transmit signals, and integrate easily with other textiles. Non-insulated conductive threads, however, can seriously hinder the functionality of wearable electronic garments. This study evaluated methods to insulate and waterproof conductive thread. Four commercially-available insulating materials were applied to a thread made from nylon coated with natural silver. The insulated threads were tested using a modified AATCC 61-2010 Accelerated Colorfastness to Laundering procedure. All four of the materials were insulative when dry. After laundering, three lost insulative properties and one was both insulative and resistant to moisture. The results of this test will enable product developers to design wearable electronic systems that ensure safety, proper electrical conductance, and signal transfer.
Session: Advances in Specialty Materials and Finishing (Continued)
2:15 – 3:45 PM
Evaluation of Active Moisture Management Effects with Standard and Adapted Test Methods
Emiel DenHartog, North Carolina State University
Multiple fibers and fabric finishes were developed that claim to have active moisture management effects; having different properties in different ambient climates. In this study, basic polyester, cotton, and poly-cotton fabrics were studied both with and without such an active finish. Moisture management tests were carried out on vapor transmission and liquid management at 21 °C and at 35 °C. The results show that the fabrics with the finish gave 5-10% better liquid moisture management properties in a 35 °C environment. No significant effects on vapor transmission properties were found. Standard test methods at 21°C did not show these differences. Active finishes and technologies require dedicated testing and analysis in specific environments and may require transient conditions that most standard tests do not cover.
Fast Drying for Textiles: Energy Saving via Surface Chemistry Approaches
Jiping Wang, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, China
The amount of water content is a determining factor for energy consumption used for drying textiles. In this study, surface chemistry approaches are used to increase textile dehydration efficiency, leading to fast drying and energy savings. Reducing liquid surface tension is an effective way to reduce water content of textiles from dehydration processes such as centrifugation. However, the surface energy of textiles in water also plays an important role in dehydration efficiency. The residual moisture content (RMC) of textiles can be reduced via adding specialty surfactants. In-situ fabric surface energy was evaluated by using a captive bubble method. It was found that cationic surfactant systems created the lowest RMC and highest drying energy saving by effectively reducing both liquid surface tension and textile surface energy.