Session: Herman & Myrtle Goldstein Student Paper Competition
Wednesday, April 10, 2013
9:45 AM – Noon
Moderator: Renzo Shamey, North Carolina State University
This competition is conducted under the auspices of AATCC's Textile Education Committee. Papers are judged on originality, scientific value, and presentation. First, second, third, and fourth place awards are presented.
Session: Modification of Substrates' Functionality
2:00 – 4:00 PM
Moderator: Rembert J. Truesdale, TenCate Protective Fabrics NA
Novel Modification of Synthetic Materials for Durable Textile Coloring and Finishes
Kristoffer K. Stokes, Celgard LLC
Celgard, LLC has developed a technology to enable the attachment of dyes and finishes to materials that have had difficulty accepting durable coatings. Synthetic materials like polyolefins (polypropylene and polyethylene) and other polymers with limited functional groups on their surface are problematic because they do not readily accept dyes or other finishes that require chemical functionality to durably bind for enhanced performance. Celgard's novel technology allows covalent attachment of a wide variety of materials to polyolefins and other synthetic polymers. Dyes and other performance finishes can be used in an essentially “drop-in” process compatible with most standard equipment setups.
Chemical & Biological Modifications of Hemp Fibers to Improve Spinning Properties
Mashiur Rahman, University of Manitoba
Spinning property improvements (spinning ratio, flexibility, and single entity or individual fiber) of decorticated hemp fibers were studied. These fibers can be spun on ring and rotor spinning systems to produce high quality yarns. Alkali treatments followed by acid and vice-versa improve spinning ratio, but both reduce fiber flexibility. Afterwards, preparatory spinning treatments (carding and combing) increase the amount of single entity fibers with significantly reduced tenacity (>50%), but the fibers can be spun with both systems. Treatment with Pectinase aspergillus at 50°C and pH ≈ 7 improves both spinning ratio and flexibility. However, the enzyme-treated hemp fibers are still not flexible enough (breaking twist only 20% of that for cotton). Addition of sorbates and sulfites in the enzyme bath helped improve flexibility.
Analyses of Surfaces of Highly Conductive Cellulosic Fibers Created by Graphene Coatings
Ian R. Hardin, University of Georgia
Highly conductive fabric specimens with unique capacitance properties have been created through formation of graphene films on cotton substrates. This process involves creating graphene segments through exfoliation and chemically uniting them on the surface of fibers to form films. From theoretical calculations, it is believed that optimal performance should result from monolayers of these films rather than multilayers. Analyses of the fabric specimens were done by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and Raman spectroscopy. The latter technique is most useful in determining not only the creation of graphene on the cotton fabric substrates, but also the number of layers created and the perfection of the films. This is then related to the conductivity and capacitance performance of the fabric specimens.
Quality Assurance for an Evolving Antimicrobial Presence in Textiles
Timothy H. Byers, Consolidated Pathways Inc.
This presentation will discuss the specific hazards of using unregistered antimicrobials in products used by consumers. It will highlight the various quality assurance protocols being used to assure proper application of registered antimicrobials. It will also discuss the importance of such quality assurance programs when registered antimicrobials are applied in the country of registration and when they are used in textile mills outside of its country of registration. This presentation will cite the specific hazards of using unregistered antimicrobials in products used by consumers. It will also explore and expound on the technical methods capable of identifying the chemical signature of a specific antimicrobial and other methods that can be used to reduce the use of counterfeit antimicrobials in the manufacturing of textile products.
Session: Sustainability in Textile Processing
Thursday, April 11
9:00 – 11:45 AM
Moderator: Kanti A. Jasani, Performance & Technical Textile Consulting
Cotton LCA: Water in Textile Processing
Michele Wallace, Cotton Incorporated
Water scarcity and quality have become significant topics to many industries in recent decades. Water is an essential substance for processing cotton textiles using current technology, so knowing more about how much water is needed and where it is used is critical to sustainability. The metrics are still being developed, so the figures can be confusing. Using data from the life cycle inventory of cotton fiber and fabric, this presentation will discuss various water metrics and the data from yarn production through wet processing for yarn, and batch and continuous processing. As expected, wet processing does impact water consumption. One surprising result was the effect of yarn manufacturing and weaving on water use.
Enzymatic Preparation: Developments for Enhanced Performance and Sustainability
Mary Ankeny, Cotton Incorporated
Sustainable approaches to wet processing include the development of processing methods that use milder chemistry, less energy, or less water compared to conventional methods. Enzymatic technology offers opportunities for improvement in each of these measures. Advances in technology have created enzymes that can be used to scour, bleach, and remove surface fuzz at near neutral pH conditions and temperatures at or below 60˚C. The comparable pH and temperature requirements allow some enzymes to be combined with each other, or with dyes, to significantly reduce the amount of water and time required to prepare and dye cotton fabric. Working together, DuPont and Cotton Incorporated have developed procedures for the enzymatic preparation and dyeing of dark, medium, and light shades on 100% cotton fabric.
High Performance Aldehyde Scavenger
Magali Belmas, NICCA USA Inc.
As consumers become more health conscious, textile and chemical manufacturers are focused on developing innovative products which reduce the overall exposure to harmful substances. NICCA USA’s new aldehyde scavenger, can fit into any process due to its treatment method versatility (spray, pad or foam coating). It is a quick acting agent with long lasting performance on various types of aldehydes. Its efficiency has already been proven for diverse fields such as textile, automotive nonwovens and urethane foams. This product has also been used successfully in filtration application. This paper will further explain the chemistry involved in aldehyde absorption and will demonstrate what performance the industry can expect.
Single Bath Process of Bio-Polishing & Dyeing with Reactive Dyes
Ravneet Kaur, Advanced Academy for the Development of Textile Technologies (AADTT)
An attempt has been made to combine the usual two bath process of dyeing followed by bio-polishing into a single process using reactive dyes and cellulase enzyme for bio-polishing. Different substrate constructions are used. The process sequence followed uses salt at the start with dyes and enzyme added in the same bath. The reactive dye is allowed to exhaust followed by the addition of alkali for fixation of reactive dye as well as stopping enzyme activity. Assessment of samples is done by checking the bending length (softness), crockfastness, and CCM. This process imparts a permanent soft handle to the fabric and a very good color value. Overall this process reduces time and materials use, thus making it sustainable.
Environmentally Friendly Production of Wash-Durable Flame-Proofed Cellulosic Substrates
J. H. Hawkes, Perachem Ltd.
Flame resistant cellulosic substrates are produced by the application of “flame retardant finishing” chemicals that offer various degrees of durability to different laundering processes. This paper describes the successful outcome of a joint development by Perachem and Clariant leading to a novel application of an environmentally-friendly reactive phosphorus-containing agent, Pekoflam ECO. During the curing process the water-soluble phosphorus compound reacts covalently with cellulosic hydroxyl sites to give covalently bonded phosphorus. To ensure maximum performance, the post incorporation of a cross-linkable nitrogen containing agent, Pekoflam SYN, is important. This simple finishing routine produces a wash-durable flame-retardant finish, which functions by its ability to form an intumescent char when the substrate is ignited. The new process avoids environmental and health problems evident when using established wash-durable FR finishes.
Session: Advances in Dyeing & Specialty Materials
2:15 – 3:45 PM
Moderator: Patrick M. Browne, Huntsman
Innovative Reducing Agent
Wolfgang Hoehn, Pulcra Chemicals GmbH
Polyester oligomers and the multiple problems caused by them have been, are, and will remain one of the core challenges of the textile industry concerned with wet processing of polyester fibers. This lecture will provide dyeing and finishing experts with an instructive survey and the proper tools to understand, analyze, assess, and finally solve the oligomer problem. A significant understanding of the major problems related with oligomers should be a realistic target following the measures recommended in this presentation. The lecture tries to meet all of the relevant core items of “oligomer know how.” We conclude with an outlook on new types of polyester fibers (CDP, PTT & PBT) and the most recent anti-oligomer approaches, some of which are still in a development status.
Novel Chemicals for Textile Applications
Gurumallesh Prabu, Alagappa University
Novel chemical materials have been synthesized in our laboratory. Synthetic chemicals (e.g., aniline, titanium, dioxide, silver nitrate, palladium chloride, ruthenium chloride, auric chloride, and iron oxide) and naturally-available plant material extracts were used as precursors. Novel metal oxide, polymer metal oxide, polymer-bimetal composite, and zero valent metals were synthesized and characterized by UV, UV-DRS, FTIR, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TEM techniques. The synthesized chemicals were coated onto textile materials such as cotton, silk, polyester, polypropylene, etc. and tested for applications in the electromagnetic interference (EMI), antibacterial, photocatalytic, and biosensing areas. Promising results were obtained.